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Table 5 Adjusted associations between the five different parenting constructs and children’s health behavior and body composition

From: The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: findings from the ChiBS study

Eating behavior
  Emotional eating Restaint eating External eating
  B (95% CI) β p B (95% CI) β p B (95% CI) β p
Structure −0.07 (−0.34; 0.21) −0.04 0.649 −0.14 (−0.46; 0.19) −0.07 0.412 −0.10 (−0.39; 0.18) −0.06 0.471
Behavioral control −0.21 (−0.48; 0.06) −0.14 0.128 0.07 (−0.24; 0.38) 0.04 0.676 −0.11 (−0.38; 0.17) −0.07 0.450
Coercive control 0.05 (−0.14; 0.23) 0.04 0.626 0.05 (−0.16; 0.25) 0.04 0.655 0.04 (−0.14; 0.22) 0.03 0.678
Overprotection −0.01 (−0.17; 0.15) −0.01 0.937 −0.04 (−0.23; 0.14) −0.04 0.640 0.05 (−0.11; 0.21) 0.05 0.532
Nurturance 0.09 (−0.21; 0.39) 0.05 0.561 −0.12 (−0.46; 0.22) −0.06 0.492 0.11 (−0.19; 0.41) 0.06 0.467
Physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep duration
  Physical activity (hours/week) Sedentary behavior (hours/week) Sleep duration (hours/week)
  B (95% CI) β p B (95% CI) β p B (95% CI) β p
Structure 1.44 (−1.18; 4.06) 0.09 0.282 −0.88 (−2.18; 0.42) −0.11 0.185 0.09 (−0.11; 0.30) 0.06 0.384
Behavioral control −2.46 (−4.92; 0.003) −0.18 0.051 0.07 (−1.17; 1.30) 0.01 0.918 0.07 (−0.13; 0.27) 0.05 0.509
Coercive control 0.89 (−0.77; 2.55) 0.09 0.294 0.88 (0.06; 1.70) 0.16 0.036 −0.23 (−0.37; −0.10) −0.23 0.001
Overprotection −0.05 (−1.55; 1.45) −0.01 0.945 −0.56 (−1.30; 0.17) −0.11 0.135 0.04 (−0.08; 0.15) 0.04 0.562
Nurturance 1.24 (−1.69; 4.18) 0.07 0.408 1.40 (0.03; 2.77) 0.16 0.047 −0.21 (−0.43; 0.01) −0.14 0.057
Body composition of the child a
  BMI z-score Fat percentage (%)     
  B (95% CI) β p B (95% CI) β p     
Structure −0.01 (−0.43; 0.41) 0.00 0.961 0.36 (−2.46; 3.18) 0.02 0.804     
Behavioral control 0.20 (−0.22; 0.61) 0.08 0.353 −0.66 (−3.46; 2.14) −0.04 0.645     
Coercive control −0.05 (−0.32; 0.22) −0.03 0.733 0.27 (−1.55; 2.10) 0.02 0.769     
Overprotection 0.05 (−0.19; 0.29) 0.03 0.690 0.66 (−0.95; 2.27) 0.06 0.421     
Nurturance −0.28 (−0.74; 0.19) −0.09 0.241 −0.58 (−3.70; 2.54) −0.03 0.716     
  1. Each parameter of a child’s health behavior and a child’s body composition was investigated in a separate model. All models were adjusted for the child’s age, child’s gender, parental ISCED-level, BMI father, BMI mother, child birth order and the other parenting constructs (n = 288)
  2. β: standardized regression coefficient; p: p-value; the significant associations (p < 0.05) are indicated in bold
  3. aThese models were also adjusted for sleep duration, physical activity and consumption frequency of different food items: sweet foods, soft drinks, fruits and vegetables.