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Table 4 Intervention effect on essential nutrient intake at follow up

From: Evaluation of the impact of a school gardening intervention on children’s fruit and vegetable intake: a randomised controlled trial

Food RHS-led (n = 312) Teacher-led Intervention (n = 329) Intervention effect
Mean (g) SE 95% CI Mean (g) SE 95% CI Mean diff (g) SE 95% CI P-value
Unadjusted           
Total energy intake (KJ/day) 7266 524.6 6237, 8294 7388 506.4 6396, 8381 −122 435.3 −730, 976 0.8
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1729 124.8 1485, 1974 1757 120.4 1521, 1994 −28 103.8 −175, 231 0.8
Total fat intake (g/day) 75 5.4 64, 85 73 5.1 63, 83 2 5.5 −13, 9 0.7
Sodium (mg/day) 2426 179.2 2075, 2777 2394 170.7 2060, 2729 31 188.7 −401, 338 0.9
Total sugars (g/day) including non- milk extrinsic sugars 87 6.7 74, 100 96 6.7 83, 109 −9 5.2 −1, 19 0.08
Carotene intake (mg/day) 1788 189.4 1416, 2159 1967 188.4 1598, 2337 179 236.2 −283, 642 0.4
Vitamin C intake (mg/day) 74 6.1 62, 86 87 5.9 76, 99 13 5.7 2, 24 0.2
Iron (μg/day) 9 0.7 8, 11 9 0.7 8, 11 −0.3 0.3 −0.9, 1.4 0.8
Fibre (g/day) 11 0.9 1, 13 12 0.9 11, 14 0.2 0.8 −0.0, 0.3 0.2
Carbohydrates (g/day) 213 15.4 183, 244 219 15.3 189, 249 −5.5 10.8 −15, 26 0.6
Folate (μg/day) 180 12.5 155, 204 189 12.1 166, 213 −9.9 10.9 −11, 3 0.4
Protein (g/day) 64 4.7 55, 73 69 4.5 60, 78 −5.2 4.7 −14, 4 0.3
Adjusted for age, IMDS a , ethnicity & gender           
Total energy intake (KJ/day) 6387 748.9 4920, 7855 6587 707.9 5199, 7974 −199 430.4 −1043, 644 0.6
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1520 178.2 1171, 1870 1567 168.4 1237, 1897 −46 102.5 −247, 154 0.6
Total fat intake (g/day) 65 8.2 49, 81 64 7.7 49, 79 1 5.2 −9, 11 0.8
Sodium (mg/day) 2272 286 1711, 2833 2257 267.7 1732, 2781 16 190.4 −357, 388 0.9
Total sugars (g/day) including non- milk extrinsic sugars 90 10.5 70, 111 99 10.0 80, 118 −8 5.1 18, 2 0.1
Carotene intake (mg/day) 1995 864 242, 3748 2164 878 442, 3886 168 230 −281, 618 0.5
Vitamin C intake (mg/day) 113 31.7 51, 175 125 31 64, 187 13 5.5 2, 23 0.02
Iron (μg/day) 8 1.0 6, 10 8 0.9 6, 10 −0.4 0.6 −1, 0.9 0.5
Fibre (g/day) 10 1.3 7, 13 11 1.3 9, 14 −1 0.8 −3, 1 0.1
Carbohydrates (g/day) 186 21.5 144, 228 193 20.6 153, 234 −7 10.9 −28, 14 0.5
Folate (μg/day) 169 19.7 131, 208 180 18.6 144, 217 −11 10.9 −32, 10 0.3
Protein (g/day) 58 7.1 44, 72 64 6.7 51, 77 −6 4.8 −15, 3 0.2
  1. Multi-level robust cluster regression analysis used to test significant difference between the two groups.
  2. aIMDS: index of multiple deprivation score.