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Table 2 Costs and effectiveness outcomes of the Active Plus intervention conditions at 12 months follow-up

From: Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a Web-based or print-delivered tailored intervention to promote physical activity among adults aged over fifty: an economic evaluation of the Active Plus intervention

  Mean costs (SD) 12 months 95% CI
Cost category Unit cost pricea C PB PE WB WE PB-C PE-C WB-C WE-C PE-PB WE-WB PB-WB PE-WE
Intervention costs - 0 25.77 31.21 15.53 18.83 - - - - - - - -
Health care costs   1682 (200) 1423 (131) 1320 (162) 1437 (129) 1406 (189) -739 to 181 -873 to 122 -733 to 201 -813 to 267 -508 to 315 -452 to 434 -372 to 349 -593 to 397
General practitioner 29.02b 126 (11) 122 (7) 117 (9) 125 (9) 143 (11) -29 to 21 -36 to 18 -30 to 25 -13 to 48 -25 to 17 -8 to 47 -25 to 19 -55 to 1
Life style coach 27.98b 16 (4) 16 (4) 18 (5) 20 (5) 33 (10) -12 to 12 -12 to 15 -8 to 18 -2 to 39 -11 to 15 -8 to 35 -17 to 8 -38 to 5
Paramedical care 35.96b 298 (36) 285 (34) 191 (23) 281 (32) 233 (32) -111 to 85 -195 to -27* -112 to 80 -158 to 28 -175 to -14* -137 to 40 -87 to 95 -121 to 36
Mental health care 82.92b 48 (19) 58 (31) 20 (7) 67 (20) 38 (11) -53 to 92 -72 to 8 -36 to 72 -55 to 30 -112 to 7 -76 to 14 -73 to 71 -43 to 6
Company doctor 72.48c 15 (4) 14 (5) 11 (4) 23 (6) 7 (3) -13 to 12 -14 to 7 -6 to 23 -18 to 1 -15 to 9 -30 to -3* -25 to 7 -4 to 14
Social worker 67.37b 4 (2) 10 (8) 12 (9) 28 (14) 5 (2) -5 to 25 -5 to 29 1 to 57* -5 to 8 -20 to 25 -55 to 1 -52 to 12 -7 to 29
Practice nurse 15.81b 5 (1) 4 (2) 10 (4) 12 (3) 10 (2) -4 to 3 -2 to 15 2 to 15* 0 to 10 -2 to 16 -12 to 5 -17 to -2* -8 to 11
Medical specialist 74.62b 135 (11) 120 (11) 130 (11) 138 (11) 150 (14) -44 to 15 -35 to 27 -27 to 34 -18 to 50 -21 to 41 -22 to 47 -48 to 13 -57 to 15
Hospital admission 473.65b 418 (75) 366 (98) 374 (114) 291 (56) 427 (131) -285 to 201 -288 to 243 -317 to 52 -258 to 334 -281 to 306 -105 to 444 -128 to 307 -401 to 288
Medication Varyingd 346 (56) 271 (29) 329 (84) 340 (70) 308 (98) -208 to 40 -195 to 201 -177 to 184 -229 to 215 -84 to 258 -256 to 229 -234 to 60 -249 to 266
Paid homecare 35.84b 270 (119) 172 (28) 116 (28) 99 (31) 88 (20) -379 to 93 -428 to 34 -451 to 19 -461 to 2 -134 to 21 -87 to 59 -8 to 156 -39 to 97
Other health care Varyinge 24 (14) 5 (2) 5 (2) 24 (13) 6 (2) -51 to 2 -50 to 2 -39 to 38 -50 to 4 -5 to 5 -49 to 2 -50 to 1 -6 to 4
Participant & family costs   567 (47) 604 (57) 631 (70) 648 (68) 585 (59) -106 to 187 -99 to 231 -76 to 244 -128 to 169 -152 to 209 -243 to 112 -215 to 120 -134 to 232
Physical activity costs - 371 (30) 387 (39) 363 (33) 349 (36) 285 (30) -81 to 111 -94 to 81 -115 to 75 -169 to -1* -126 to 77 -158 to 27 -69 to 140 -8 to 167
Travel costs Varyingb 75 (6) 71 (6) 61 (5) 79 (6) 74 (6) -19 to 12 -28 to 1 -12 to 21 -18 to 16 -25 to 5 -21 to 13 -24 to 9 -29 to 3
Unpaid homecare 12.80b 126 (32) 155 (40) 218 (63) 230 (57) 235 (51) -69 to 135 -41 to 242 -16 to 236 -9 to 229 -80 to 219 -154 to 146 -218 to 54 -172 to 147
Productivity losses - 485 (117) 369 (118) 296 (102) 986 (246) 526 (159) -443 to 214 -498 to 113 12 to 1068* -334 to 448 -383 to 230 -1047 to 99 -1179 to -124* -632 to 114
Societal costs - 2737 (258) 2448 (204) 2306 (223) 3052 (301) 2516 (273) -936 to 345 -1098 to 235 -451 to 1090 -966 to 521 -737 to 454 -1338 to 256 -1339 to 100 -912 to 444
  Mean effects (SD) 12 months  
Effectiveness outcomes C PB PE WB WE F P
- MET hours PA/week -2.2 (29.1) 3.0 (28.2) 2.7 (27.9) 0.7 (27.8) -0.4 (31.6) 2.39 0.05
- Minutes MVPA/week -72.1 (500.9) 3.1 (533.8) 37.7 (506.1) -32.8 (445.2) -39.8 (522.7) 2.96 0.02
- days with sufficient PA 0.1 (1.7) 0.4 (1.7) 0.5 (1.6) 0.0 (1.4) 0.2 (1.3) 5.87 0.00
QALY-EQ-5D-3L 0.884 (0.164) 0.876 (0.155) 0.883 (0.160) 0.883 (0.162) 0.888 (0.165) 0.339 0.85
  1. C = control group, PB = printed basic intervention, PE = printed environmental intervention, WB = Web-based basic intervention, WE = Web-based environmental intervention.
  2. aUnit cost prices are indexed to 2011 costs, based on consumer price index [44]; bbased on Dutch guidelines [27]; cbased on Collective Agreement for company doctors in the Netherlands (2002); dadapted from www.medicijnkosten.nl based on Defined Daily Dose [43]; eadapted from several resources including Hakkaart - van Roijen et al. [27], detailed specification available upon request; *Significant difference (the 95% CI does not include zero).