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Table 2 Standardized factor loadings in the final models of the modified NEWS-A for seniors and original NEWS-A among NHS participants in California, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, 2008

From: Factorial validity of an abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for seniors in the Nurses’ Health Study

Factor and items Modified Original
NEWS-A for seniors NEWS-A
Access to destinations factor   
Stores within easy walking distance .81 .81
Many places within easy walking distance .81 .82
Easy to walk to a transit stop .65 .65
Street connectivity factor   
Short distance between intersections .53 .52
Many alternative routes .61 .64
Straight streets, not curvy .51 N/A
Infrastructure for walking factor   
Sidewalks on most streets .88 .92
Cars divide sidewalk and traffic .71 .71
Grass/dirt strip divides sidewalk and traffic .64 .64
Streets are well lit at night .55 .54
Crosswalks have beeps .31 N/A
Pedestrian signals give time to cross .51 N/A
Curb cuts or ramps .76 N/A
Aesthetics factor   
Trees along the streets .41 .41
Interesting things to look at .79 .79
Attractive natural sights, views .86 .86
Attractive buildings, homes .68 .68
Traffic safety factor   
Traffic makes it difficult to walk .81 .76
Traffic speed is usually slow .60 .64
Most drivers exceed the speed limit .57 .60
Safe to walk in or along street .62 N/A
Personal safety factor   
High crime rate .78 .82
Crime makes it unsafe to walk during day .68 .66
Crime makes it unsafe to walk during night .77 .77
Unsafe alleys between buildings .55 N/A
Loitering teenagers make it unsafe to walk .63 N/A
Other items not in a factor   
Few cul-de-sacs Not included Not included
Walkers and bikers easily seen Not included Not included
Parking is difficult in shopping areas Not included Not included
Hilly streets Not included Not included
Major barriers to walking Not included Not included
Bicycle lanes or trails Not included N/A
Islands in the middle of the road Not included N/A
Have to cross busy streets to get to shops Not included N/A
Cars crossing sidewalks Not included N/A
Stray or loose dogs Not included N/A
  1. Not included: Item not included in the final measurement model.
  2. N/A: Item found only in modified NEWS-A for seniors, not in original NEWS-A.
  3. See Appendix for full item wording.