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Table 2 Studies and effect sizes of parental modeling and child and adolescent physical activity (k = 36)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental PA measure Child PA measure Results Corrected effect size
Alderman et al. (2010) [36] USA N = 70 PRO (1–9 yrs) Parent self-report Parent report Children’s MVPA & parental PA: r = .44, p < .05 at baseline; r = .08, p < .05 at follow-up .37
43 m, 26 f .70* (97% respondents mothers) .70*
4-6 yrs at baseline; 5–15 yrs at follow-up Mean r = .26
Ammouri et al. (2007) [37] USA N = 284 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Adolescents’ PA & parental PA: β = .019 .03
98 m, 186 f GLTEQ SAPAC
15.3 yrs .70* .80
Berge et al. (2014) [38] USA N = 200 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA & parental MVPA β = .11, p < .05 (resident parent) .15
80 m, 120 f GLTEQ GLTEQ
14.2 yrs .75 (80% resident parent mothers) .72
Dempsey et al. l(1993) [39] USA N = 71 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & parents’ MVPA: β = −.17 -.24
36 m, 35 f Adapted GLTEQ Adapted GLTEQ
10.2 yrs .70* .70*
Dowda et al. (2011) [40] USA N = 369 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (2 wks) Children’s MVPA & parents’ PA: β = .002 .00
179m, 194 f Sport PA .67 .80*
4.2 yrs Non-sport PA .71 Direct observation
  (92% respondents mothers) (OSRAC-P) Inter-observer .91
Dzewaltowski et al. (2008) [41] USA N = 57 CS Child reported (adapted from the YRBSQ) Child self-report Children’s MVPA & parental PA: b = .22 .29
18 m, 37 f PDPAR
12.4 yrs .90 ICC = .64
Fredricks & Eccles (2005) [42] USA N = 364 PRO (1 yr) Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s sports PA & parents’ PA: r = .05 at baseline; r = .04 at follow-up .06
184 m, 180 f Sports participation
Ages 7.0-11.0 yrs at baseline .70* Mean r = .045
Heitzler et al. (2010) [43] USA N = 720 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescents’ MVPA & parent PA: r = .07 .09
352 m, 368 f IPAQ .80*
14.7 yrs .70*
Hendrie et al. (2011) [44] Australia N = 106 CS Parent self-report Parent report Children’s MVPA & parental PA: r = .145; partial r = .145 .19
51 m, 55 f Adapted from the Family Food Questionnaire α = .877 (92% respondents mothers) CLASS
8.3 yrs .70*
Hennessy et al. (2010) [45] USA N = 76 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (5 d) .80* Children’s MVPA & parental explicit modeling: β = −.04, p = .70 -.06
26 m, 50 f ICC = .55 (96% respondents mothers)
9.1 yrs
Keresztes et al. (2008) [46] Hungary N = 548 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & parents’ PA: OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.15-3.80 .41
301 m, 247 f .70* .70*
12.2 yrs
Labree et al. (2014) [47] Netherlands N = 1943 CS Parent self-report Parent report Children’s PA & parental modeling: r = .12, p < .05 .17
970 m, 973 f SQUASH .70*
8.4 yrs .70* (mostly mothers)
Lei et al. (2004) [48] Taiwan N = 798 CS Child report Child report Adolescent MVPA & parental modeling: r = −.018, p = .616 -.02
Age range: 12–18 yrs Parent Socialization Scale 7-day PA Survey
.70* .82
Loprinzi et al. (2010) [49] Austrailia N = 156 CS Parent self-report Parent report Child PA & parents’ PA: β = −.04, p = .64 -.06
75 m, 81 f IPAQ PAEC-Q
3.7 yrs .70* .70*
Loprinzi et al. (2013) [50] USA N = 176 CS Parent self-report Parent report Children’s MVPA & parent PA: β = .17, p < .05 .24
82 m, 94 f IPAQ PAEC-Q
4.0 yrs .70* (85% respondents mothers) .70*
McMurray et al. (1993) [51] USA N = 1253 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s PA & parents’ exercise habits: r = .006, p = .845 .01
589 m, 664 f .70* (70% respondents mothers) .70*
8.8 yrs
Moore et al. (1991) [52] USA N = 100 CS Accelerometer (5 d) Accelerometer (5 d) Children’s PA & parents’ PA: OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.2-9.8; r = .46 .66
63 m, 37 f .70* .70*
10.4 yrs
Mota (1998) [53] Portugal N = 45 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s PA & parents’ VPA: r = .14 .17
.88 .72 Children’s PA & parents’ MPA: r = .13
18 m, 27 f
10.1 yrs Mean r = .135
Østbye et al. (2013) [54] USA N = 208 CS Parent report Accelerometer (7 d) Children’s PA & parental modeling: r = .12 .15
116 m, 92 f Role modeling of PA .80*
α = .80 (all mothers)
2-5 yrs
Patnode et al. (2010) [55] USA N = 294 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescents’ MVPA & parents’ PA: r = .003 .00
149 m, 145 f IPAQ .80*
15.4 yrs .70*
Perusse et al. (1989) [56] Canada N = 1610 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Adolescents’ PA (exercise) & parental PA: r = .09, p < .05 (n = 1039) .10
14.6 yrs 3-day activity record 3-day activity record
.97 .91
Pfeiffer et al. (2009) [57] USA N = 331 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (8–10 d) Children’s MVPA & parents’ PA: r = −.04 -.05
169 m, 162 f .78 (94% respondents mothers) .80*
4.3 yrs
Poest et al. (1989) [58] USA N = 514 CS Parent self-report Teacher report Children’s PA & parents’ PA: r = .28, p = .045 .40
269 m, 245 f .70* .70*
Preschool children
Polley et al. (2005) [59] USA N = 87 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s PA & parents’ PA: r = .11 .16
Children .70* .70*
Ruiz et al. (2011) [60] USA N = 106 CS Accelerometer (7 d) Accelerometer (7 d) Children’s MPA & parents’ PA: r = .739, p < .0001 .59
52 m, 54 f .70* (97.2% respondents mothers) .80* Children’s VPA & parents’ PA: r = − .07, p > .05
4.2 yrs Mean r = .4128
Rutkowski et al. (2012) [61] USA N = 94 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Adolescents’ MPVA & parental PA: r = −.23, p < .05 .29
56 m, 28 f IPAQ PACE + MVPA
12.8 yrs α = .80 ICC = .81
Sallis et al. (1988) [62] USA N = 33 PRO (2.5 yrs) Parent self-report FATS Children’s MPA & parents’ PA: β = .53, p < .01 .70
13 m, 20 f .70* .81
3.9 yrs
Singh et al. (2009) [63] USA N = 68288 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s VPA & parents’ PA: r = .24* .34
Age range: 6–17 yrs .70* .70* *controlled for other covariates
Trost et al. (2003) [64] USA N = 380 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Adolescents’ PA & parental PA: β = .05, p = .28 .06
171 m, 209 f Test-retest .79
14.0 yrs .78
Vella et al. (2014) [65] Australia N = 4042 PRO (2 yrs) Parent self-report MVPA Parent report Children’s PA & parental MVPA: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p < .05; r = .01 .01
2069 m, 1973 f .70* (96% respondents mothers) Organized sports participation
8.3 yrs
.70*
Welk et al. (2003) [66] USA N = 994 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Children’s PA & parent PA: r = .28 .38
505 m, 489 f .68 children PAQ-C
10.0 yrs .68 boys .75-.82
.67 girls
(82% respondents mothers)
Williams & Mummery (2011) [67] Australia N = 295 CS Parent report Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA & parents’ MVPA: adjusted OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.29-1.20 -.29
111 m 184 f Active Australia Survey APARQ
15.1 yrs .70* (67% respondents mothers) .70*
Zecevic et al. (2010) [68] Canada N = 102 CS Parent self-report Parental report Children’s PA & parental PA habits: OR = 1.620, p < .10; r = .1874 .27
54 m, 48 f .70* (96% respondents mothers) .70*
3.8 yrs
Zhao & Settles (2014) [69] USA N = 1514 CS Parent self-report Parent report Children’s MPA & parental PA: β = −.15, p < .05 -.17
763 m, 751 f .70* .70* Children’s VPA & parental PA: β = −.09
11.8 yrs
Mean β = −.12
Ziviani et al. (2005) [70] Australia N = 50 CS Parent self-report Pedometer (4 d) Children’s’ PA & parents’ PA: β = .23 .28
26 m, 24 f .97-1.00 .70*
7.7 yrs
Ziviani et al. (2008) [71] Australia N = 59 CS Parent self-report Pedometer (4 d) Children’s PA (weekday) & parents’ PA: r = .06 .16
26 m, 33 f .97-1.00 .70* Children’s PA (weekend) & parents’ PA: r = .21
8.9 yrs
Mean r = .135
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; APARQ = Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire; CLASS = Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey; CS = cross-sectional; d = days; f = female; FATS = Fargo Activity Timesampling Survey; GLTEQ = Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire; PRO = prospective; m = male; MPA = moderate physical activity; MVPA = moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; OSRAC-P = Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version; PA = physical activity; PAEC-Q = Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire for Children; SAPAC = Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; SQUASH = Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical activity; VPA = vigorous physical activity.