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Table 3 Studies and effect sizes for parental support and child and adolescent physical activity (k = 34)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental support measure Child physical activity measure Results Corrected effect size
Barr-Anderson et al. (2010) [72] USA N = 73 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA and perceived parental support: β = .17, p < .05 .24
18 m, 55 f Parental Support – aggregated measure (encouragement, coactivity, transportation, watching, inform) Adapted GLTEQ
10.1 yrs Child test-retest .88 Hard/strenuous test-retest .63
Moderate test-retest .52
Davison et al. (2012) [73] USA N = 767 CS Parent report Child self-report Children’s MVPA &parental support: r = .20, p < .01 (n = 355) .27
392 m, 375 f Parental support – aggregated measure (logistic support, modeling, co-activity, encouragement) .70* Adolescent’s MVPA & parental support: r = .36, p < .01 (n = 412) .49
Age range: 6.0-12.0 yrs & 13.0-19.0 yrs α = .78
Dowda et al. (2011) [40] USA N = 369 CS Parent report Accelerometer (2 wk) Children’s MVPA & parental support: β = .28 .34
Parental support – aggregated measure (encourage, coactivity, transportation, watching child, providing information) .80*
175 m, 194 f Direct observation (OSRAC-P)   
4.2 yrs
Test-retest .81 (92% respondents mothers) Inter-observer .91
Hagger et al. (2009) [74] N = 840 PRO (5 wks) Child report Child self-report Children’s MVPA (UK; n = 210) & parental support: r = .47, p < .01 .55
4 countries: UK, Estonia, Finland, Hungary 380 m, 460 f Parental support – aggregated measure (provision of opportunities, choices, and options to be active) Adapted GLTEQ Children’s MVPA (Estonia; n = 268) & parental support: r = .36, p < .01 .45
Age range: 13.2-15.0 yrs UK α = .96 UK .77 Children’s MVPA (Finland; n = 127) & parental support: r = .41, p < .01 .51
Estonian α = .94 Estonian .68 Children’s MVPA (Hungary; n = 235) & parental support: r = .20, p < .01 .26
Finland α = .96 Finland .67
Hungary α = .90 Hungary .67
Hamilton & White (2008) [75] Australia N = 423 CS Child report Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA & parental support: r = .37, p < .001 .53
172 m, 251 f Parental support – aggregated measure (co-activity, watch, encouragement, praise, transportation) .70*
13.5 yrs .70*
Heitzler et al. (2006) [76] USA N = 3114 CS Parent reported Child self-report Children’s organized PA & parental support: OR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.45-1.88, p < .001 .30
Age range: 9.0-13.0 yrs Parental support – aggregated and individually reported (coactivity, watching child, & transportation) Test-retest .64
Test-retest .65  
Heitzler et al. (2010) [43] USA N = 720 CS Child report Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescents’ MVPA & parental support: r = .19, p < .05 .24
352 m, 268 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, coactivity, watch, praise) α = .80 .80*
14.7 yrs
Hendrie et al. (2011) [44] Australia N = 106 CS Parent report Child self-report Children’s MVPA & parental support: r = .162; r = .18 when controlled for parent demographic factors) .22
51 m, 55 f Parental support – aggregate measure (watching, transportation) CLASS
8.3 yrs .70*
α = .79 (92% respondents mothers)
Hennessy et al. (2010) [45] USA N = 76 CS Parent report Accelerometer (5 d) Children’s PA & logistical support: β = .18, p = .12 .26
26 m, 50 f Logistical support .70*
9.1 yrs α = .67
Kim & Cardinal (2010) [77] Korea N = 1347 CS Child report Child self-report Adolescent PA & parental support: r = .19, p < .01 .22
943 m, 404 f Parental support – aggregated measure (e.g., encouragement) GLTEQ
16.4 yrs Test-retest .86
test-retest .83
Labree et al. (2014) [47] Netherlands N = 1943 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & parental support: r = .21, p < .05 .31
970 m, 973 f Parental support .70*
8.4 yrs α = .64 (respondents predominantly mothers)
Langer et al. (2014) [78] USA N = 421 CS Parent report Accelerometer (7 d) Children’s MVPA & parental support: r = .20, p < .001 .25
213 m, 208 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch) .80*
6.9 yrs α = .77 (93% respondents mothers)
Lawman & Wilson (2014) [79] USA N = 181 CS Child report Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescent’s MVPA & parental support: r = .09 .11
72 m, 109 f Parental support – aggregated measure .80*
13.3 yrs α = .89
Lei et al. (2004) [48] Taiwan N = 798 CS Child report Child report Children’s MVPA & parental support: r = .12, p < .001 .17
Age range: 12–18 yrs Parental support 7-day PA survey
.75 .70*
Loprinzi & Trost (2010) [49] Australia N = 156 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA (at home) & parental support: β = .16, p < .05 .12
75 m, 81 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encourage, co-activity, transportation, watch, inform) PAEC-Q (PA at home) Children’s PA (daycare) & parental support: β = .01
3.7 yrs test-retest .81 .70* Mean β = .09
Accelerometer (2 d)  
(PA during daycare)  
.70*  
Loprinzi et al. (2013) [49] USA N = 176 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s MVPA & parental support: β = .29, p < .05 .40
Parental support – aggregated measure (encourage, co-activity, transportation, watch, inform) PAEC-Q
82 m, 94 f
4.0 yrs
α = .75 (85% respondents mothers) .70*
Ommundsen et al. (2006) [80] Norway N = 760 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s PA & parental support: r = .40, p < .001 .57
379 m, 381 f Parental support - aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity) PEACH
9.0 & 15 yr olds .70* .70*
Østbyte et al. (2013) [54] USA N = 208 CS Parent report Accelerometer (7 d) Children’s PA & parental support: r = .26, p < .05 .34
116 m, 92 f Parental support – aggregated measure .80*
2-5 yrs α = .75 (all mothers)
Patnode et al. (2010) [55] USA N = 294 CS Child reported aggregate measures (encouragement, watch) Accelerometer (7 d) Adolescents’ MVPA & parental support: r = .15, p < .05 .19
149 m, 145 f α = .76 .80*
15.4 yrs
Pfeiffer et al. (2009) [57] USA N = 331 CS Parent report Accelerometer (8–10 d) Children’s’ MVPA & family support: r = .04 .05
169 m, 162 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch, inform) .80*
.81 (94% respondents mothers)
4.3 yrs
Prochaska et al. (2002) [81] USA N = 138 CS Child report Activity monitor (5 d) Children’s PA (monitor) & parental support: r = .12 .15
48 m, 90 f Parental support – aggregated & individual measures: Encouragement, coactivity, transportation, watch, praise .70*
12.1 yrs
ICC = .88
α = .77
Schaben et al. (2006) [82] USA N = 1995 CS Child report Child self-report Adolescents’ MVPA (middle school) & parental support: r = .31 .44
1033 m, 962 f Parental support –aggregated measure (role modeling, encouragement, co-activity, facilitation) PAQ Adolescents’ MVPA (high school) & parental support: r = .38
14.7 yrs α = 81 Test-retest males Mean r = .35
.75
Test-retest females .82
Schary et al. (2012) [83] USA N = 195 CS Parent report Parent report Children’s PA & parental support: r = .32, p < .001 .44
Parental support – aggregated & individual measures (encouragement, transportation, co-activity, watch, inform) PAEC-Q
90 m, 105 f
4.0 yrs α = .76 (86% respondents mothers) .70*
Taylor et al., (2002) [84] USA N = 509 CS Child report Child self-report & parent report Children’s PA & family support: partial r = .43, p < .001 (<85th percentile BMI); partial r = .13, p = .45 (>85th percentile BMI) .48
231 m, 278 f Family support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch) .70*  
Age range: 12–18 yrs α = .81 Mean r = .38
Test-retest .88
Trost et al. (2003) [64] USA N = 380 CS Parent report Child self-report Adolescents’ PA & parental support: β = .24 .30
171 m, 209 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch, inform) Test-retest .79
14.0 yrs α = .78
Test-retest .81
Verloigne et al. (2014) [85] Australia N = 134 CS Parent report Accelerometer (4 d) Adolescent MVPA & logistic support: r = .02 .03
66 m, 68 f Parental support (logistic support – transportation, financial support) .70*
14.1 yrs α = .90 (84% respondents mothers)
Welk et al. (2003) [66] USA N = 994 CS Child report Child self-report Children’s PA & parental support: r = .51 .70
505 m, 489 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, involvement, facilitation) PAQ-C
10.0 yrs α = .76 .70*
Williams & Mummery (2011) [67] Australia N = 295 CS Parent report Adolescent PARQ Adolescents’ MVPA & parental support: OR = 7.38, 95% CI 2.98-18.29* .95
111 m, 184 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, watch, transportation, inform, co-activity) .70* *adjusted for other variables
15.1 yrs .70* (67% respondents mothers)
Zecevic et al. (2010) [68] Canada N = 102 CS Parent report Parental report Children’s PA & parental support: OR = 2.18, p < .10; r = .2976 .41
54 m, 48 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch, inform) .70*
3.8 yrs
α = .75
Zhang et al. (2012) [86] USA N = 285 CS Child report PAQ-C Adolescent’s MVPA & parental support: r = .43, p < .01 .55
142 m, 143 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, coactivity, transportation, praise) .75
13.4 yrs .81
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; CLASS = Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey; CS = cross-sectional; d = day; f = female; GLTEQ = Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; m = males; MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; PA = physical activity; PAQ = Physical Activity Questionnaire; PAQ-C = Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children; PARQ = Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire; PEACH = Personal and Environmental Associations with Children’s Health; PAEC-Q = Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire for Children; PRO = prospective; OSRAC-P = Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version; wk = week.