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Table 4 Studies and effect sizes for parental modeling and girls' physical activity moderated by parental gender (k = 62)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental PA measure Child PA measure Results Corrected effect size
Aarnio et al. (1997) [87] Finland N = 3254 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ PA (n = 1130) & fathers’ PA: r = .046, p < .01 .07
1557 m, 1697 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA (n = 1123) & mothers’ PA: r = .101, p < .01 .14
16.0 yrs
Anderssen & Wold (1992) [88] Norway N = 904 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .14, p < .01 .19
498 m, 406 f .70* .78 Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .14, p < .01 .19
13.3 yrs
Anderssen et al. (2006) [89] Norway N = 380 PRO (8 yrs) Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: β = .09 .12
191 m, 189 f .70* .83 Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: β = .05 .07
13.3 yrs at baseline
Bastos et al. (2008) [90] Brazil N = 857 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = −.08 -.11
411 m, 446 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = −.05 -.07
Age range: 10–19 yrs
Bogaert et al. (2003) [91] Australia N = 59 PRO (1 yr) Parent self-report Parent report Girls’ MVPA & mothers PA: r = .44, p = .03 .47
29 m, 30 f Bouchard activity record .97 Bouchard activity record .91
8.6 yrs at baseline
Campbell et al. (2001) [92] Canada N = 153 PRO (12 yrs) Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = .001 .00
77 m, 76 f .97 .91 Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .008 .01
13.5 yrs at baseline
Davison et al. (2001) [93] USA N = 197 PRO Parent self-report Parent report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = −.03 at baseline -.05
All females (2 yrs) .70* α = .58 Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .09 at baseline .14
5.4 yrs at baseline
7.3 at follow-up
Davison et al. (2003) [94] USA N = 180 CS Parent report PA measures as a composite score of CPA-short, an activity checklist, and PACER Girls’ & fathers’ explicit modeling: r = .25, p < .01 .36
All females Explicit modeling .70* Girls’ PA and mothers’ explicit modeling: r = .08 .11
9.0 yrs .70*
Deflandre et al. (2001) [95] France N = 80 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = .30 .43
36 m, 44 f .70* .70* Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .16 .23
Age range: 11–16 yrs
Deflandre et al. (2001) [96] France N = 48 CS Child report Heart rate monitor (7 d) Girls’ MVPA & fathers ‘PA: r = .35 .50
26 m, 22 f .70* .70* Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .21 .30
17.0 yrs
Eriksson et al. (2008) [97] Sweden N = 1124 CS Baeke Questionnaire Child self-report Girls’ PA (sports) & fathers’ PA: crude OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.2 .43
553 m, 571 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA (sports) & mothers’ PA: crude OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-4.5 .58
12.0 yrs
Fogelholm et al. (1999) [98] Finland N = 271 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .24, p < .01 .34
143 m, 128 f .70* .70* Girls’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .28, p < .01 .40
9.6 yrs
Fuemmeler et al. (2011) [99] USA N = 45 CS Accelerometer (3 d) Accelerometer (3 d) Girls’ MVPA (weekend) & fathers’ PA: r = .37 .47
23 m, 22 f .70* .70* Girls’ MVPA (weekday) & fathers’ PA; r = .42, p < .05; r = .19 .96
9.9 yrs Mean r = .327
Girls’ MVPA (weekday) & mothers’ PA: r = .70, p < .01; r = .64, p < .01
Girls’ MVPA (weekend) & mothers’ PA: r = .67, p < .01
Mean r = .670
Hinkley et al. (2012) [100] Australia N = 705 CS Parent self-report Accelerometer (8 d) Girls’ PA & father’s MPA: OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p < .05 .01
366 m, 262 f .70* (94% respondents mothers) .80* Girls’ PA & mother’s VPA: OR = 1.01, 95% CI .99-1.02 .01
4.5 yrs
Jacobi et al. (2011) [101] France N = 630 CS Parent self-report Pedometer (7 d) Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .24 .34
317 m, 313 f MAQ .70*
Age range 8–18 yrs Pedometer (7 d)
.70*
Jago et al. (2014) [102] UK N = 822 CS Accelerometer (5 d) Accelerometer (5 d) Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ MVPA: β = .07 .10
436 m, 386 f .70* .70* Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ MVPA: β = .15 .21
6.0 yrs
Kahn et al. (2008) [103] USA N = 12812 PRO (1 yr) Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: β = .13, p < .0001 .19
5575 m, 7237 f .70* .70*
Age range: 10–18 yrs
Madsen et al. (2009) [104] USA N = 2379 PRO (9 yrs) Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & child reported fathers’ PA (yr 3): r = .13, p < .05 .19
All females .70* HAQ Girls’ MVPA & child reported fathers’ PA (yr 5): r = .08 .20
9-10 yrs followed to 18–19 yrs Adolescent report .70* Girls’ MVPA & child reported fathers’ PA (yr 7): r = .13, p < .05
.70* Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ PA (yr 9): r = .18, p < .05
Mean r = .13
Girls’ MVPA & child reported mothers’ PA (yr 3): r = .13, p < .05
Girls’ MVPA & child reported mothers’ PA (yr 5): r = .12
Girls’ MVPA & child reported mothers’ PA (yr 7): r = .16, p < .05
Girls’ MVPA & child reported mothers’ PA (yr 9): r = .16, p < .05
Mean r = .14
Martin-Matillas et al. (2011) [105] Spain N = 2260 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.70-3.29, p < .001 .47
1157 m, 1103 f Health Behaviour in Schoolchildren .70* Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.41-2.56, p < .001 .35
Age range; 13–18.5 yrs .70*
Moore et al. (1991) [52] USA N = 100 CS Accelerometer (7–9 d) Accelerometer (8–9 d) Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.5-8.2 .66
63 m, 37 f .80* .80* Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 2.0, 95% CI .9-4.4 .33
Age range: 4–7 yrs
Nichols-English et al. (2006) [106] USA N = 133 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ MPA & mothers’ MPA: r = .05 -.09
All female 7DPAR 7DPAR Girls’ VPA & mothers’ VPA: r = −.16
9.6 yrs .70* .70* Mean r = −.06
O’Loughlin et al. (1999) [107] Canada N = 1920 CS Child report .70* Child self-report Girls’ PA (sports) & mothers’ PA: OR = 1.6 95% CI 1.1-2.1 .26
989 m, 931 f Weekly activity checklist
Age range: 9–13 yrs Self-reported sports participation
.70*
Ohta et al. (2010) [108] Japan N = 339 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .163, p < .01 .23
All female .70* .70*
14.8 yrs
Pahkala et al. (2007) [109] Finland N = 558 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .10, p = .19 .21
294 m, 264 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .15, p < .05 .17
13.0 yrs
Raudsepp (2006) [110] Estonia N = 329 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ explicit modeling: r = .23, p < .01 .32
168 m, 161 f Father’s modeling .72 7DPAR Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ explicit modeling: r = .33, p < .01 .47
13.8 yrs
Mother’s modeling .71 .70*
Shropshire & Carroll (1997) [111] UK N = 924 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .23 .33
468 m, 454 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .05 .07
Age range: 10–11 yrs
Siegel et al. (2011) [112] Mexico N = 1004 CS Child report Child self-report PAQ Girls’ MVPA (9–10 yrs) & fathers’ PA: β = .186, p < .05 .26
490 m, 514 f .70* α = .72 Girls’ MVPA (9–10 yrs) & mothers’ PA: β = .148, p < .05 .21
Age range: 9–18 yr olds
Girls’ MVPA (11–13 yrs) & fathers’ PA: β = .151, p < .05 .21
Girls’ MVPA (11–13 yrs) & mothers’ PA: β = .191, p < .05 .27
Sigmund et al. (2008) [113] Czech Republic N = 192 CS Parent report Child report Girls’ MPA & fathers’ PA: r = .15 .19
109 m, 89 f IPAQ IPAQ Girls’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .10 .20
Age range: 8–13 yrs .70* .70* Mean r = .13
Girls’ MPA & mothers’ PA: r = .28
Girls’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .27
Mean r = .14
Toftegaard-Stockel et al. (2011) [114] Denmark N = 6356 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA (sports) & fathers’ PA: r = .11 .16
3190 m, 3166 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA (sports) & mothers’ PA: r = .22 .31
Age range: 12–16 yrs
Trost et al. (1997) [115] USA N = 202 PRO Child report Child report Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = −.02 -.02
92 m, 110 f (1 yr) .70* PDPAR Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .09 .11
10-11 yrs at baseline .98
Trost et al. (1999) [116] USA N = 198 CS Child report Accelerometer (7 d) Girls’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .10 .16
95 m, 103 f .70* .80* Girls’ MPA & fathers’ PA: r = .13 .12
11.4 yrs Mean r = .12
Girls’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .08
Girls’ MPA & mothers’ PA: r = .09
Mean r = .09
Wagner et al. (2004) [117] France N = 2852 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Girls’ structured PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.92 .25
1421 m, 1431 f .70* MAQ-A Girls’ structured PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.28-2.52 .19
12.0 yrs .70*
Yang et al. (1996) [118] Finland N = 635 PRO (12 yrs) Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA (cohort 1) & fathers’ PA: r = .12 .20
316 m, 319 f .70* .70* Girls’ PA (cohort 2) & fathers’ PA: r = .14 .17
9.0 yrs at baseline Girls’ PA (cohort 3) & fathers’ PA: r = .15
N = 648 Mean r = .14
321 m, 327 f Girls’ PA (cohort 1) & mothers’ PA: r = .14
12.0 yrs at baseline Girls’ PA (cohort 2) & mothers’ PA: r = .12
N = 598 Girls’ PA (cohort 3) & mothers’ PA: r = .12
286 m, 312 f Mean r = .12
15.0 yrs at baseline  
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; 7DPAR = 7-Day Physical Activity Recall; CPA = Children’s Physical Activity-Short Scale; CS = cross-sectional; d = day; f = female; HAQ = Habitual Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire; m = male; MAQ = Modifiable Activity Questionnaire; MAQ-A = Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents; MPA = moderate physical activity; MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; PA = physical activity; PACER = Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run; PAQ = Physical Activity Questionnaire; PDPAR = Previous Day Physical Activity Recall; PRO = prospective; VPA = vigorous physical activity.