Skip to main content

Table 5 Studies and effect sizes for parental modeling and boys' physical activity moderated by parental gender (k = 49)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental PA measure Child PA measure Results Corrected effect size
Aarnio et al. (1997) [87] Finland N = 3254 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ PA (n = 1120) & fathers’ PA: r = .012, p < .01 .02
1557 m, 1697 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA (n = 1146) & mothers’ PA: r = .100, p < .01 .14
16.0 yrs
Anderssen & Wold (1992) [88] Norway N = 904 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .17, p < .001 .23
498 m, 406 f .70* .78 Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .11, p < .01 .15
13.3 yrs
Anderssen et al. (2006) [89] Norway N = 380 PRO (8 yrs) Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: β = .10 .13
191 m, 189 f .70* .83 Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: β = .11 .14
13.3 yrs at baseline
Bastos et al. (2008) [90] Brazil N = 857 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = −.02 -.03
411 m, 446 f .70* .70* Boys’ & mothers’ PA: r = .08 .11
Age range: 10–19 yrs
Campbell et al. (2001) [92] Canada N = 153 PRO (12 yrs) Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = .05 .05
77 m, 76 f .97 .91 Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .03 .03
13.5 yrs at baseline
Deflandre et al. (2001) [95] France N = 80 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = .56 .80
36 m, 44 f .70* .70* Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = .30 .43
Age range: 11–16 yrs
Deflandre et al. (2001) [96] France N = 48 CS Child report Heart rate monitor (7 d) Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = −.11 -.16
26 m, 22 f .70* .70* Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = −.01 -.01
17.0 yrs
Eriksson et al. (2008) [97] Sweden N = 1124 CS Baeke Questionnaire Child self-report Boys’ PA (sports) & fathers’ PA: crude OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.6 .61
553 m, 571 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA (sports) & mothers’ PA: crude OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5 .49
12.0 yrs
crude OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-4.5
Fogelholm et al. (1999) [98] Finland N = 271 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .08 .11
143 m, 128 f .70* .70* Boys’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .20, p < .01 .29
9.6 yrs
Fuemmeler et al. (2011) [99] USA N = 45 CS Accelerometer (3 d) Accelerometer (3 d) Boys’ MVPA (weekend) & fathers’ PA: r = .43, p < .05 .65
23 m, 22 f .70* .70* Boys’ MVPA (weekday) & fathers’ PA: r = .38; r = .55, p < .01 .15
9.9 yrs Mean r = .453
Boys’ MVPA (weekend) & mothers’ PA: r = .10
Boys’ MVPA (weekday) & mothers’ PA: r = .09; r = .13
Mean r = .107
Jacobi et al. (2011) [101] France N = 630 CS Parent self-report Pedometer (7 d) Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .18 .26
317 m, 313 f MAQ .70*
Age range 8–18 yrs Pedometer (7 d)
.70*
Jago et al. (2014) [102] UK N = 822 CS Accelerometer (5 d) Accelerometer (5 d) Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ MVPA: β = .10 .14
436 m, 386 f .70* .70* Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ MVPA: β = .06 .09
6.0 yrs
Kahn et al. (2008) [103] USA N = 12812 PRO (1 yr) Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: β = .085, p < .0001 .12
5575 m, 7237 f .70* .70*
Age range: 10–18 yrs
Martin-Matillas et al. (2011) [105] Spain N = 2260 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.40-2.84, p < .001 .38
1157 m, 1103 f Health Behaviour in School Children .70* .09
Age range; 13–18.5 yrs .70*   Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 1.18, 95% CI .85-1.65, p > .05  
Moore et al. (1991) [52] USA N = 100 CS Accelerometer (7–9 d) Accelerometer (8–9 d) Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-9.3 .52
63 m, 37 f 80* .80* Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 2.0, 95% CI .7-5.7 .33
Age range: 4–7 yrs
O’Loughlin et al. (1999) [107] Canada N = 1920 CS Child report .70* Child self-report Boys’ PA (sports) & fathers’ PA: OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.9 .38
989 m, 931 f Weekly Activity Checklist
Age range: 9–13 yrs Self-reported sports participation
.70*
Pahkala et al. (2007) [109] Finland N = 558 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .07, p = .28 .10
294 m, 264 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .10, p = .13 .14
13.0 yrs
Raudsepp (2006) [110] Estonia N = 329 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ explicit modeling: r = .38, p < .001 .54
168 m, 161 f Father’s modeling .72 7DPAR Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ explicit modeling: r = .35, p < .01 .50
13.8 yrs Mother’s modeling .71 .70*   
Shropshire & Carroll (1997) [111] UK N = 924 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA & fathers’ PA: r = .19 .27
468 m, 454 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA & mothers’ PA: r = .11 .16
Age range: 10–11 yrs
Siegel et al. (2011) [112] Mexico N = 1004 CS Child report Child self-report PAQ Boys’ MVPA (9–10 yrs) & fathers’ PA: β = .239, p < .05 .34
490 m, 514 f .70* α = .72 Boys’ MVPA (9–10 yrs) & mothers’ PA: β = .160, p < .05 .23
Age range: 9–18 yr olds
Sigmund et al. (2008) [113] Czech Republic N = 192 CS Parent report Child report Boys’ MPA & fathers’ PA: r = .39, p < .001 .34
109 m, 89 f IPAQ IPAQ Boys’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .08 .34
Age range: 8–13 yrs .70* .70* Mean r = .24
Boys’ MPA & mothers’ PA: r = .30
Boys’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .17
Mean r = .24
Toftegaard-Stockel et al. (2011) [114] Denmark N = 6356 CS Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA (sports) & fathers’ PA: r = .19 .27
3190 m, 3166 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA (sports) & mothers’ PA: r = .06 .09
Age range: 12–16 yrs
Trost et al. (1997) [115] USA N = 202 PRO (1 yr) Child report Child report Boys’ MVPA & fathers’ PA: r = .05 .06
92 m, 110 f .70* PDPAR Boys’ MVPA & mothers’ PA: r = −.07 -.08
10-11 yrs at baseline .98
Trost et al. (1999) [116] USA N = 198 CS Child report Accelerometer (7 d) Boys’ VPA & fathers’ PA: r = .15 .24
95 m, 103 f .70* .80* Boys’ MPA & fathers’ PA: r = .21, p < .05 .24
11.4 yrs Mean r = .18
Boys’ VPA & mothers’ PA: r = .21, p < .05
Boys’ MPA & mothers’ PA: r = .14
Mean r = .18
Wagner et al. (2004) [117] France N = 2852 CS Parent self-report Child self-report Boys’ structured PA & fathers’ PA: OR = 1.36, 95% CI .97-1.91 .37
1421 m, 1431 f .70* MAQ-A Boys’ structured PA & mothers’ PA: OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.14 .17
12 yrs .70*
Yang et al. (1996) [118] Finland N = 635 PRO (12 yrs) Child report Child self-report Boys’ PA (cohort 1) & fathers’ PA: r = .21 .27
316 m, 319 f .70* .70* Boys’ PA (cohort 2) & fathers’ PA: r = .17 .10
9 yrs at baseline Boys’ PA (cohort 3) & fathers’ PA: r = .18
N = 648 Mean r = .19
321 m, 327 f Boys’ PA (cohort 1) & mothers’ PA: r = .08
12 yrs at baseline Boys’ PA (cohort 2) & mothers’ PA: r = .06
Boys’ PA (cohort 3) & mothers’ PA: r = .08
N = 598 Mean r = .07
286 m, 312 f
15 yrs at baseline
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; 7DPAR = 7-Day Physical Activity Recall; CS = cross-sectional; d = days; f = females; IPAQ = International Physical Activity Questionnaire; m = males; MAQ = Modifiable Activity Questionnaire; MAQ-A = Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents; MPA = moderate physical activity; MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; PA = physical activity; PAQ = Physical Activity Questionnaire; PDPAR = Previous Day Physical Activity Recall; PRO = prospective; VPA = vigorous physical activity.