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Table 7 Studies and effect sizes for parental support and girls’ physical activity moderated by parental gender (k = 13)

From: Parental correlates in child and adolescent physical activity: a meta-analysis

Study, country Sample (number, gender, mean age) Design Parental support measure Child physical activity measure Results Corrected effect size
Beets et al. (2007) [142] USA N = 259 CS Child report Child self-report Girls’ MVPA & paternal support: β = −.09 -.11
All female Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, co-activity, transportation, watch, praise) .70* Girls’ MVPA & maternal support: β = .25 .32
15.5 yrs Mother α = .85
Father α = .91
Brunet et al. (2014) [143] Canada N = 558 CS Child report Accelerometer (7 d) Girls’ MVPA & paternal support: r = .24, p < .001 (normal weight) .28
306 m, 252 f Parental support – aggregated measure (co-activity, watch, transportation, encouragement, inform) .80* Girls’ MVPA & paternal support: r = .20 .19
9.6 yrs α = .77 Mean r = .22
Girls’ MVPA & maternal support: r = .10
ICC = .81 Girls’ MVPA & maternal support: r = .20 (normal weight)
Mean r = .15
Butcher et al. (1983) [144] Canada N = 696 CS Self-report Child self-report Girls’ PA & maternal support: r = .21 .30
All female Parental support .70*
11.0-16.0 yrs .70*
Butcher (1985) [145] Canada N = 140 PRO Child report Child self-report Girls’ PA (structured PA outside of school) & paternal support: r = .36, p < .01 .51
All female (5 yrs) Parental support .70* Girls’ PA (structured PA outside of school) & maternal support: r = .27, p < .01 .39
Followed from age 11.0 to 15.0 yrs .70*
Davison et al. (2003) [94] USA N = 180 CS Parent report Child self-report Girls’ PA & paternal .19
All females   Logistic support PA measure a composite score of CPA-short, an activity checklist, & PACER logistic support: r = .14 .28
9.0 yrs Mother α = .61 .70* Girls’ PA & maternal logistic support: r = .18, p < .05
Father α = .74
Hinkley et al. (2012) [100] Australia N = 705 CS Parent report Accelerometer (8 d) Girls’ PA & paternal logistic support: OR = 1.01, 95% CI .99-1.03 .01
366 m, 262 f Logistic support .70* .80*
4.5 yrs
Kirby et al. (2011) [146] UK N = 641 PRO (5 yrs) Child report Child report Girls’ PA & paternal support (yr 1): OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.13-3.60 (p < .05) .34
313 m, 328 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, transportation, watch, co-activity, praise) PAQ-C Girls’ PA & paternal support (yr 3): OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.32-3.70 (p < .05) .37
Followed from age .70* .70* Girls’ PA & paternal support (yr 5): OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.06-3.71 (p < .05)
11-15 yrs Mean r = .24  
Girls’ PA & maternal support (yr 1): OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.41-4.50 (p < .05)
Girls’ PA & maternal support (yr 3): OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.32-3.70 (p < .05)
Girls’ PA & maternal support (yr 5): OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.54-3.58
Mean r = .26
Raudsepp (2006) [110] Estonia N = 329 CS Parent report 7DPAR Girls’ MVPA & fathers’ logistic support: r = .32, p < .010 .43
168 m, 161 f Parental logistic support –aggregated measure (enrollment, financial support, transportation) .70* Girls’ MVPA & mothers’ logistic support: r = .22, p < .01 .32
13.8 yrs Father α = .78
Mother α = .68
Stucky-Ropp & DiLorenzo (1993) [147] USA N = 242 CS Parent report Child self-reported Girls’ PA & maternal support: r = .32 .46
121 m, 121 f Parental support – aggregated measure (encouragement, offers to exercise with child) .70*
11.2 yrs .70* (all respondents mothers)
  1. Note. *reliability not reported; 7DPAR = 7-day physical activity recall; CS = cross-sectional; d = days; f = females; m = males; MVPA = moderate to vigorous physical activity; PA = physical activity; PAQ-C = Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children; PRO = prospective.