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Table 7 Summary of the results from reviews about determinants of dietary behavior among youth: Importance of a determinant and strength of evidence

From: Determinants of dietary behavior among youth: an umbrella review

  Dietary behavior
Determinants Fruit Vegetable Fruit & vegetable Snack/fast food Sugar-sweetened beverage Breakfast
Physical environment +, Ls [26] 0, Ls [26] 0, Ls [15,21,24,29,31] 0, Ls [21,23,24,29,31] 0, Ls [21,23,24,29,30] 0, Ls [23,25]
Social-cultural environment 0, Ls [20,23,26-28] 0, Ls [20,23,26-28] +, Ls [16,18,21,24,27-29] 0, Ls [18,21,23,24,28,29] +, Ls [18,20,21,23,24,28-30] 0, Ls [18,20,23,25,28,30]
Economic/financial environment    0, Ls [16,21,29] 0, Ls [21,29] -, Ls [21,29,30] -, Lnc [30]
Political environment    0, Ls [27]    
Attitude 0, Lnc [24] 0, Lnc [24] 0, Ls [24,27] ++, Ls [24] ++, Lnc [24]  
Subjective norm    ++, Lnc [27]    
Self-efficacy/perceived behavioral control 0, Ls [24] 0, Ls [24] 0, Ls [24,27] 0, Ls [24] ++, Lnc [24]  
Intention ++, Ls [24] ++, Lnc [24] +, Ls [24,27] ++, Ls [24] ++, Lnc [24]  
Self-regulation    ++, Ls [15] (implementation intentions)    
Habitual behavior, automaticity      ++, Lnc [17]  
Sensory perceptions, perceived palatability foods    +, Ls [24,27] ++, Lnc [24] --, Lnc [24]  
Other, knowledge 0, Ls [24] 0, Ls [24] +, Ls [24,27] 0, Ls [24] ++, Lnc [24]  
Other, sedentary behavior +, Ls [19,22,27] 0, Ls [19,22,27] +, Ls [19,22,27] +, Ls [19,22] ++, Ls [22] ++, Ls [22]
  1. Note: Importance of a determinant: ++, +, 0, −, −- (see Table 3); strength of evidence (see Table 4): Co (Convincing evidence), Pr (Probable evidence), Ls (Limited, suggestive evidence), Lnc (Limited, no conclusion); studies including determinants such as stress and risks and dietary behavior such as milk and meat intake not included in this table.