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Table 1 Distribution of individual, familial, and neighbourhood characteristics according to obesity status (BMI ≥95 th percentile) among QUALITY study participants at baseline in 2005-2008

From: Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors

  Obese Not obese  
  (n = 117) (n = 395) P value*
Individual characteristics    
Age, years, mean (sd) 9.7 (0.9) 9.6 (0.9) 0.11*
Sex, boys,% (n) 51.3 (60) 55.4 (219) 0.43
Puberty initiated at baseline,% (n) 33.6 (39) 21.0 (83) 0.005
Puberty initiated at follow-up,% (n) 76.8 (76) 65.8 (237) 0.04
Sugar-sweetened beverage intake >50 ml/day,% (n)§ 65.8 (75) 55.7 (214) 0.06
Meet physical activity guidelines,% (n)§§ 12.8 (12) 37.4 (127) <0.001
BMI percentile at baseline, mean (sd) 97.8 (1.3) 60.3 (26.8) <0.001*
BMI percentile at follow-up, mean (sd) 96.5 (5.1) 61.2 (27.3) <0.001*
Familial characteristics    
Household income <25000$,% (n) 26.1 (30) 15.1 (59) 0.006
Highest level of education of either parent,% (n)    
 2 parents with high school degree or less 14.7 (17) 6.4 (25) <0.001
 ≥1 parent with technical/vocational/trade school degree 47.4 (55) 35.9 (141)  
 ≥1 parent with university degree 37.9 (44) 57.8 (227)  
Number of parents with BMI ≥30 kg/m2,% (n)    
 0 8.6 (10) 30.9 (122) <0.001
 1 62.4 (73) 52.4 (207)  
 2 29.1 (34) 16.7 (66)  
Number of parents with abdominal obesity,% (n)    
 0 4.3 (5) 10.1 (40) <0.001
 1 44.4 (52) 61.8 (244)  
 2 51.3 (60) 28.1 (111)  
Mother’s BMI, kg/m2, mean (sd) 31.9 (7.3) 28.8 (6.2) <0.001*
Father’s BMI, kg/m2, mean (sd) 32.9 (6.2) 30.2 (5.3) <0.001*
Mother’s waist circumference, cm, mean (sd) 99.6 (15.6) 92.0 (13.9) <0.001*
Father’s waist circumference, cm, mean (sd) 111.4 (16.1) 105.2 (13.6) <0.001*
Neighborhood characteristics    
% residents with a university degree, mean (sd) 26.6 (14.4) 29.1 (15.5) 0.12*
Residential value, $1000, mean (sd) 204 (52) 215 (61) 0.07*
Neighborhood prestige,% (n)    
 Low 37.6 (44) 31.9 (126) 0.42
 Average 33.3 (39) 33.4 (132)  
 High 29.1 (34) 34.7 (137)  
% households with low income, mean (sd) 8.0 (6.6) 7.3 (6.7) 0.29*
% single parent families, mean (sd) 16.7 (7.0) 15.3 (7.1) 0.05*
% unemployment, mean (sd) 5.3 (2.6) 5.2 (3.0) 0.72*
% 1 year mobility, mean (sd) 11.0 (5.2) 10.8 (5.4) 0.63*
Home ownership, mean (sd) 67.8 (25.5) 74.5 (25.8) 0.08*
Neighborhood disadvantage,% (n)    
 Low 25.6 (30) 35.4 (140) 0.09
 Average 34.2 (40) 33.2 (131)  
 High 40.2 (47) 31.4 (124)  
≥1 park within 500 m,% (n) 68.4 (80) 74.9 (296) 0.16
≥1 convenience store within 500 m,% (n) 35.9 (42) 26.8 (106) 0.06
≥1 fast food restaurant within 500 m,% (n) 17.1 (20) 11.9 (47) 0.14
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, Body mass index; QUALITY, Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth; sd, standard deviation.
  2. *The P value of a t-test comparing mean values between obese and non-obese.
  3. §Data missing for 14 (3 obese and 11 non-obese) participants.
  4. §§Data missing for 67 (19 obese and 48 non-obese) participants.