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Table 2 Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of relationship between child food neophobia and fruit variety, vegetable variety, discretionary food intake and weight (child age M = 24.0 ± SD = 0.7 months; n = 330), controlling for significant covariates

From: Food neophobia and its association with diet quality and weight in children aged 24 months: a cross sectional study

  Fruit variety score a Vegetable variety score b Percent energy from discretionary foods c BMI Z-score d
Mean ± SD 4.2 ± 2.1 4.9 ± 2.9 18.4 ± 10.2 0.8 ± 1.0
  B (SE) β B (SE) β B (SE) β B (SE) β
Step 1 ΔR2 = 0.093** ΔR2 = 0.046* ΔR2 = 0.041* ΔR2 = 0.16**
 Maternal age at delivery 0.073 (0.024) 0.17* 0.12 (0.033) 0.21** −0.23 (0.12) −0.107 −0.021 (0.012) −0.099
 Maternal BMI at T1 −0.026 (0.019) −0.071 −0.017 (0.026) −0.034 0.079 (0.10) 0.045 0.024 (0.0090) 0.14*
 Maternal education (not university vs university) 0.88 (0.23) 0.21** 0.59 (0.31) 0.10 −0.89 (1.16) −0.043 0.027 (0.11) 0.013
 Other children (no vs yes) −0.52 (0.25) −0.12* −0.59 (0.34) −0.097 3.60 (1.25) 0.17* −0.077 (0.12) −0.035
 Infant weight-for-age Z-scoree −0.071 (0.11) −0.034 −0.047 (0.15) −0.016 0.72 (0.56) 0.070 0.35 (0.054) 0.34**
Step 2 ΔR2 = 0.025* ΔR2 = 0.082** ΔR2 = 0.013* ΔR2 = 0.004
 Total CFNS scoref −0.092 (0.030) −0.16* −0.23 (0.041) −0.29** 0.32 (0.15) 0.11* −0.017 (.015) −0.061
Final model R2 = 0.12** R2 = 0.13** R2 = 0.054* R2 = 0.17**
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; **p < 0.001; B = unstandardized regression coefficient, β = standardized regression coefficient (values are from the final model).
  2. aNumber of different fruit subgroups eaten over three days (30 fruit sub-groups in total).
  3. bNumber of different vegetable subgroups eaten over three days (35 vegetable sub-groups in total).
  4. cAverage energy contributed by discretionary foods as a percentage of average daily energy intake over three days
  5. dCalculated at child age M = 24.0, SD = 0.7 months using WHO Anthro software program version 3.0.1 and macros [33].
  6. eCalculated at child ageM = 5.2, SD = 1.3 months using WHO Anthro software program version 3.0.1 and macros [33].
  7. fTotal score on Child Food Neophobia Scale [29], 6 items, 4 point scale, higher scores indicative of stronger behavioural display of neophobia; reported by mother at child age M = 24.0, SD = 0.7 months.