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Table 1 Built and social environment features with evidence of association with physical activity

From: Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: an exploration of literature

Setting Feature Description Reference
Open Spaces/Parks/Trails Design features Size, amenities, physical activity facilities [18-21]
Presence/proximity Existence of and distance to [6,18,22]
Trails Proximity to and design of [6,20]
Programs, promotion, and events Park-based programming [19]
Park incivilities/civilities Existence or lack of graffiti, litter, anti-social behavior (public drinking, loitering) [20,23,24]
Public gardens Presence [19]
Urban Design/Land Use Density Population and housing density [6,18,22]
Mixed land use Mix of destinations, distance to destinations [6,18,22]
Streetscale pedestrian design Including buffers between street and sidewalk, building set-back from sidewalk, form based codes, street lights, etc. [10,25]
Greenery Street trees/shrubbery, gardens [18,22]
Incivilities Graffiti, vacant/dilapidated buildings, litter, anti-social behavior (public drinking, loitering) [18,23,24]
Accessibility & street connectivity Density of intersections in street network [18,20,26]
Transportation Pedestrian/bicycle infrastructure Sidewalks, bike lanes/paths, bike parking [6,18,22,25]
Crosswalk markings Crosswalk and intersection quality [25,27]
Traffic calming Speed bumps, curb-cuts, road diet, other engineering infrastructure [27,28]
Public transportation Proximity to or density of bus, train stops [6,20,22]
Traffic speed/volume   [18]
Safe routes to school Engineering, programming, promotion and events [6,21]
Ciclovia/play streets Opening streets for walking, bicycling, rolling, play [26,29]
Managed parking Restricted parking access [30]
Schools School siting Location of school, distance from residences (suburban, urban, rural) [31]
Recreation facilities Physical education (PE) facilities and equipment, presence of PE teachers [32,33]
Shared use agreements Community use of school facilities for physical activity [33,34]
Buildings/Workplaces Building siting Distance to residences, accessibility by public transit [35]
Mixed land use around worksite Mix of destinations, distance to destinations [6,18,22]
Building site design Design of property that building sits upon with physical activity options [35]
Building design Stair design, exercise equipment presence, shower/locker presence, skip-stop elevators [35,36]
Worksite physical activity policies and programs Exercise classes, discounted gym membership, active transportation promotion policies, parking cash out programs, point-of-decision prompts [37,38]
Workplace furniture design Sit-stand desks [39]