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Table 3 Scoring methods for summarizing the evidence

From: Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: an exploration of literature

Score Type of evidence
4.5 Peer-reviewed, systematic review paper (including meta-analysis)
4 Peer-reviewed, non-systematic review paper (from scientific literature) or non-peer-reviewed review paper (from gray literature)
3.5 Any (singular) peer-reviewed study
3 Any (singular) non peer-reviewed study, such as a technical report from a government agency or academic center
2 Non-analytic studies (for example, case reports, case series, simulations) or advocacy report without a clear literature review
1 Expert opinion, formal consensus
Score Direction of association
+ A favorable association was found between feature and co-benefit (feature was associated with “better” level of co-benefit
- An unfavorable association was found between feature and co-benefit (feature was associated with “worse” level of co-benefit
0 (zero) No association or inconsistent evidence was found between feature and co-benefit