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Table 1 Sample characteristics of youth with type 1 diabetes participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention trial (N = 136)

From: Improving dietary quality in youth with type 1 diabetes: randomized clinical trial of a family-based behavioral intervention

  All participants Treatment (N = 66) Control (N = 70) p 1
Demographics Mean ± SD or N (%) Mean ± SD or N (%) Mean ± SD or N (%)
Age (years) 12.8 ± 2.6 12.6 ± 2.7 13.0 ± 2.5 0.27
Sex     
 Male 66 (48.5) 35 (53.0) 31 (44.3) 0.31
 Female 70 (51.5) 31 (47.0) 39 (55.7)  
Race/ethnicity     
 White, non-Hispanic 123 (90.4) 58 (87.9) 65 (92.9) 0.17
 Hispanic 7 (5.2) 6 (9.1) 1 (1.4)  
 Black 5 (3.7) 2 (3.0) 3 (4.3)  
 Other 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4)  
Highest parent education level2     
 High school or equivalent 8 (5.9) 4 (6.1) 4 (5.7) 0.48
 Junior college, technical or some college 27 (19.9) 11 (16.7) 16 (22.9)  
 College degree 46 (33.8) 20 (30.3) 26 (37.1)  
 Graduate education 55 (40.4) 31 (47.0) 24 (34.3)  
Family poverty income ratio2 5.2 ± 3.1 5.5 ± 3.2 4.9 ± 3.0 0.23
Diabetes and health-related characteristics     
Duration of diabetes (years) 6.0 ± 3.1 5.6 ± 2.5 6.3 ± 3.6 0.15
Insulin regimen     
 Injection only 42 (30.9) 20 (30.3) 22 (31.4) 0.89
 Pump 94 (69.1) 46 (69.7) 48 (68.6)  
Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (times/d) 5.7 ± 2.4 5.8 ± 2.4 5.6 ± 2.5 0.60
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 8.1 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.1 8.1 ± 1.0 0.95
BMI z-score 0.68 ± 0.82 0.65 ± 0.81 0.71 ± 0.84 0.65
Dietary Intake     
% kcal from carbohydrate 47.9 ± 0.5 48.0 ± 0.7 47.9 ± 0.7 0.93
% kcal from protein 16.2 ± 0.2 16.1 ± 0.4 16.3 ± 0.4 0.70
% kcal from fat 35.9 ± 0.5 35.9 ± 0.7 35.8 ± 0.6 0.92
Whole plant food density 1.89 ± 0.09 1.87 ± 0.13 1.91 ± 0.13 0.84
Fruit (cup equivalents per 1000 kcal) 0.28 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.04 0.26 ± 0.03 0.60
Vegetable (cup equivalents per 1000 kcal) 0.53 ± 0.03 0.50 ± 0.04 0.55 ± 0.04 0.38
Whole grains (ounce equivalents per 1000 kcal) 0.69 ± 0.05 0.66 ± 0.07 0.72 ± 0.08 0.59
Legumes, nuts, and seeds (cup equivalents per 1000 kcal) 0.17 ± 0.03 0.17 ± 0.04 0.17 ± 0.03 1.00
Healthy eating index 2005 57.3 ± 1.3 57.3 ± 1.8 57.2 ± 2.0 0.99
  1. 1Comparisons between intervention and control groups using independent t-tests for continuous variables or chi-square for categorical variables.
  2. 2Missing data from 1 participant on highest parent education and from 2 participants on family income.