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Table 5 Cross-lagged panel models: parental feeding practices predicting girls’ and boys’ weight-height ratio (WHtR)

From: Parental feeding practices and child weight status in Mexican American families: a longitudinal analysis

  Mothers’ feeding practices Fathers’ feeding practices
Cross-lagged effects Girls’ WHtR Boys’ WHtR Girls’ WHtR Boys’ WHtR
  β β β β
Baseline feeding practices → Year 1 child WHtR
 Restriction 0.23** 0.22** 0.21** 0.40***
 Pressure −0.12 −0.23** −0.07 −0.29**
 Use food to control −0.10 −0.11 na na
 Positive involvement na na 0.10 0.08
Year 1 feeding practices → Year 2 child WHtR
 Restriction −0.02 0.02 −0.11* 0.18*
 Pressure −0.01 −0.05 −0.04 −0.03
 Use food to control −0.03 0.02 na na
 Positive involvement na na −0.07 0.15*
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. na: not applicable because the interaction between child gender and feeding practice was not significant