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Table 3 Linear and curvilinear associations of socio-demographic and perceived environmental attributes with weight status (normal vs. overweight/obese) and body mass index (kg/m2) (N = 14222)

From: International study of perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes and Body Mass Index: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries

Predictor Odds of being overweight/obesea Body mass indexb
  OR 95 % CI p exp(b) exp(95 % CI) p
Socio-demographic       
 Gender (reference: male)       
  Female 0.60 0.56, 0.65 <.001 0.97 0.96, 0.98 <.001
 Area socio-economic status (reference: low)       
  High socio-economic status 0.89 0.80, 0.98 .021 0.98 0.97, 0.99 <.001
 Education (reference: less than high school )       
  High school graduate 0.99 0.89, 1.11 .903 0.99 0.98, 1.00 .167
  College or more 0.69 0.61, 0.78 <.001 0.96 0.95, 0.97 <.001
 Working status (reference: not working)       
  Working 0.98 0.90, 1.07 .665 0.99 0.99, 1.00 .069
 Marital status (reference: single)       
  Couple 1.19 1.10, 1.29 <.001 1.00 0.99, 1.01 .291
 Age (yrs) 1.60 1.14, 2.26 <.001 1.05 1.01, 1.09 .006
Perceived environmental attributes       
Residential density 1.000 0.999, 1.000 .079 1.001 0.999, 1.003 .138
Land use mix – access 1.07 0.99, 1.15 .078 1.01 0.99, 1.01 .064
Land use mix – diversity (9 destination types) 0.94 0.88, 1.00 .062 0.99 0.99, 1.00 .043
Connectivity 1.00 0.94, 1.05 .902 1.00 0.99, 1.00 .137
Infrastructure and safety 0.98 0.91, 1.06 .595 1.00 0.99, 1.01 .819
Aesthetics 0.96 0.90, 1.03 .287 0.99 0.99, 1.00 .055
Safety from traffic 0.92 0.86, 0.97 .005 0.99 0.99, 1.00 .002
Safety from crime 0.99 0.92, 1.04 .496 0.99 0.99, 1.00 .071
 Curvilinear component - - - F(1.52) = 4.72   .017
Few cul-de-sacs 0.98 0.94, 1.02 .364 1.00 1.00, 1.00 .792
No major barriers 0.97 0.92, 1.02 .177 1.00 0.99, 1.00 .480
Composite walkability score 0.98 0.97, 0.99 .002 0.992 0.88, 0.995 <.001
  1. Note. Regression coefficients are adjusted for other perceived environmental characteristics, respondents’ age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and administrative-unit (neighborhood) socio-economic status. OR = odds ratio; 95 % CI = 95 % confidence intervals; exp(b) = antilogarithm of regression coefficient; exp(95 % CI) = antilogarithm of confidence intervals; − = not applicable. ageneralized additive mixed model (GAMM) with binomial variance and logit link functions. bGAMM base on quasi-likelihood approach with logarithmic link function and variance proportional to the cube of the outcome mean. For these models, exp(b) is to be interpreted as the proportional increase in body mass index associated with a 1 unit increase on the predictor
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