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Table 2 Multivariate linear regression investigating the association of accelerometer-based PA data with SI, by age group

From: Impact of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and muscle strength on bone stiffness in 2–10-year-old children-cross-sectional results from the IDEFICS study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3a Model 4
  Adjusted for age, sex, country Model 1 + adjusted for FFM, MDP, daylight duration Model 2 + adjusted for either PA or/and sedentary time Model 3 + adjusted for muscle strength
  β p value R2 (%) β p value R2 (%) β p value R2 (%) β p value R2 (%)
Preschool children (N = 1512)            
 Sedentary time (hour/day) −0.84 0.010 17.9 −0.73 0.008 18.6 −0.37 0.28 19.1    
 Light PA (hour/day) 0.11 0.77 17.5 −0.05 0.89 18.3 −0.47 0.26 18.6    
 Moderate PA (per 10 min/day) 0.76 <.001 18.1 0.83 <.001 19.0 0.75 0.003 19.1    
 Vigorous PA (per 10 min/day) 1.23 0.047 17.7 1.37 0.027 18.6 1.22 0.05 18.8    
 MVPA (per 10 min/day) 0.59 0.001 18.1 0.65 <.001 19.0 0.58 0.003 19.0    
 PA levels (per 100 cpm) 0.96 <.001 18.3 0.92 <.001 19.0       
 FFM (kg)b −0.41 <.001 17.9 −0.40 0.001 18.2 −0.40 <.001 19.0    
School children (N = 2953)            
 Sedentary time (hour/day) −0.60 <.001 24.1 −0.77 <.001 25.9 −0.42 0.015 27.0 −0.44 0.011 27.2
 Light PA (hour/day) 0.26 0.17 23.8 0.43 0.025 25.5 0.004 0.98 25.9 0.09 0.69 26.3
 Moderate PA (per 10 min/day) 0.81 <.001 24.8 0.94 <.001 26.7 0.83 <.001 26.8 0.78 <.001 27.1
 Vigorous PA (per 10 min/day) 1.61 <.001 24.6 1.74 <.001 26.3 1.58 <.001 26.7 1.43 <.001 26.9
 MVPA (per 10 min/day) 0.65 <.001 24.9 0.73 <.001 26.8 0.66 <.001 26.9 0.61 <.001 27.2
 PA level (per 100 cpm) 0.84 <.001 24.7 1.02 <.001 26.7     0.96 <.001 27.0
 FFM (kg) 0.44 <.001 25.3 0.45 <.001 25.3 0.50 <.001 26.7 0.41 <.001 27.0
 Jumping distance (10 cm) 0.41 <.001 24.2 0.35 <.001 25.7 0.27 0.005 26.9    
 Handgrip strength (kg)b 0.41 <.001 24.9 0.20 0.013 25.5 0.18 0.021 26.9    
  1. cpm average counts per minute, FFM fat-free-mass, MDP milk and dairy products, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, PA physical activity
  2. aIn Model 3, the independent variables were (in addition to Model 2) adjusted as follows: sedentary time: moderate and vigorous PA; light PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA and MVPA: sedentary time; musculoskeletal fitness and FFM: PA level; PA level: no additional adjustment for other accelerometer-based variables
  3. bIn Model 2, FFM was adjusted for MDP and daylight duration