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Table 3 Multivariate linear regression investigating the association of reported PA data with SI, by age group

From: Impact of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and muscle strength on bone stiffness in 2–10-year-old children-cross-sectional results from the IDEFICS study

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3a Model 4
   Adjusted for age, sex, country Model 1 + adjusted for FFM, MDP, daylight duration Model 2 + adjusted for either PA or SB Model 3 + adjusted for muscle strength
  β p value R2 β p value R2 β p value R2 β p value R2
Preschool children (N = 1512)             
 Screen time (hours/week) −0.07 0.22 17.4 −0.04 0.50 18.2 −0.04 0.50 18.4    
 Leisure time PA (hours/week) 0.07 0.048 17.5 0.07 0.05 18.4 0.07 0.047 18.4    
 WBE Impact WBE 2.26 0.009 17.7 2.59 0.003 18.7 2.57 0.003 18.7    
 Reference: no exercise/WBE              
School children (N = 2953)            
 Screen time (hours/week) 0.002 0.92 23.7 −0.01 0.63 25.3 −0.01 0.54 25.5 −0.01 0.85 25.8
 Leisure time PA (hours/week) 0.05 0.023 23.8 0.05 0.019 25.5 0.05 0.020 25.5 0.04 0.037 25.8
 WBE Impact WBE 1.73 <.001 24.2 1.67 <.001 25.7 1.66 <.001 25.7 1.49 <.001 26.0
 Reference: no exercise/WBE              
  1. PA physical activity, WBE weight-bearing exercise
  2. aIn Model 3, the independent variables were (in addition to Model 2) adjusted as follows: screen time: leisure time PA; leisure time PA and WBE: screen time