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Table 3 Association of sugar-containing beverage intake with cardiovascular outcomes, in the total population and stratified by sex

From: Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study

  Systolic blood pressure (n = 1,950) Diastolic blood pressure (n = 1,950) Pulse wave velocity (n = 1,704)
  Model A Model B Model A Model B Model A Model B
  Total population
Low tertile n = 647/578 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 653/559 0.03 (−0.08; 0.14) 0.02 (−0.09; 0.12) 0.06 (−0.04; 0.17) 0.05 (−0.05; 0.16) 0.00 (−0.11; 0.12) 0.01 (−0.11; 0.12)
High tertile n = 650/567 0.05 (−0.06; 0.16) 0.02 (−0.08; 0.13) 0.11 (0.01; 0.22)* 0.09 (−0.02; 0.19) −0.01 (−0.13; 0.10) −0.01 (−0.13; 0.11)
Trend p = 0.34 p = 0.67 p = 0.03 p = 0.10 p = 0.81 p = 0.86
  Boys
Low tertile n = 317/277 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 320/274 −0.01 (−0.15; 0.14) −0.01 (−0.16; 0.13) 0.01 (−0.14; 0.16) 0.01 (−0.14; 0.16) 0.10 (−0.08; 0.28) 0.10 (−0.08; 0.28)
High tertile n = 317/275 0.10 (−0.05; 0.24) 0.08 (−0.06; 0.23) 0.14 (−0.00; 0.29) 0.13 (−0.02; 0.28) 0.03 (−0.15; 0.20) 0.03 (−0.15; 0.21)
Trend p = 0.40 p = 0.28 p = 0.05 p = 0.08 p = 0.77 p = 0.76
  Girls
Low tertile n = 330/301 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 333/285 0.07 (−0.09; 0.23) 0.04 (−0.12; 0.20) 0.10 (−0.04; 0.25) 0.08 (−0.06; 0.23) −0.06 (−0.21; 0.09) −0.07 (−0.22; 0.08)
High tertile n = 333/292 0.00 (−0.16; 0.16) −0.03 (−0.19; 0.13) 0.08 (−0.07; 0.22) 0.04 (−0.10; 0.18) −0.05 (−0.20; 0.10) −0.04 (−0.19; 0.11)
Trend p = 0.99 p = 0.66 p = 0.31 p = 0.59 p = 0.54 p = 0.60
  1. Values are linear regression coefficients (95 % confidence interval) and reflect the difference in outcome (SD scores) for medium and high sugar-containing beverage intake, as compared to the lowest category of intake
  2. Trend tests were performed using tertiles of sugar-containing beverage intake as continuous variable in the model
  3. Model A is adjusted for age at measurements and total energy intake (and child sex in the analysis of the total population)
  4. Model B is additionally adjusted for maternal age, BMI, education level, smoking during pregnancy, folic acid supplement use during pregnancy, breastfeeding of the child, diet quality score, and hours of TV watching at age 2)
  5. *p < 0.05
  6. N per tertile are number of children in the tertiles for the blood pressure measures and for pulse wave velocity, respectively