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Table 4 Association of sugar-containing beverage intake with metabolic outcomes, in the total population and stratified by sex

From: Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study

  HDL cholesterol (n = 1,390) Triglycerides (n = 1,387) Insulin (n = 1,383) Preperitoneal fat (n = 1,639)
  Model A Model B Model A Model B Model A Model B Model A Model B
  Total population
Low tertile n = 456/456 456/534 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 466/465 464/554 −0.06 (−0.19; 0.07) −0.07 (−0.20; 0.06) −0.04 (−0.17; 0.09) −0.04 (−0.17; 0.10) 0.02 (−0.11; 0.14) 0.02 (−0.11; 0.15) −0.04 (−0.13; 0.06) −0.05 (−0.15; 0.05)
High tertile n = 468/466 463/551 −0.11 (−0.24; 0.02) −0.12 (−0.25; 0.01) 0.12 (−0.01; 0.25) 0.12 (−0.01; 0.25) 0.02 (−0.11; 0.15) 0.03 (−0.10; 0.16) 0.05 (−0.05; 0.15) 0.02 (−0.08; 0.12)
Trend p = 0.08 p = 0.06 p = 0.06 p = 0.06 p = 0.76 p = 0.66 p = 0.30 p = 0.63
  Boys
Low tertile n = 236/236 2335/253 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 243/243 243/279 −0.12 (−0.30; 0.06) −0.13 (−0.31; 0.05) −0.03 (−0.21; 0.15) −0.03 (−0.21; 0.16) 0.05 (−0.12; 0.22) 0.07 (−0.10; 0.24) −0.05 (−0.18; 0.08) −0.06 (−0.19; 0.07)
High tertile n = 239/239 237/282 −0.13 (−0.31; 0.05) −0.14 (−0.32; 0.04) 0.16 (−0.03; 0.34) 0.15 (−0.03; 0.34) 0.06 (−0.11; 0.22) 0.08 (−0.09; 0.25) −0.04 (−0.16; 0.09) −0.06 (−0.19; 0.08)
Trend p = 0.15 p = 0.13 p = 0.09 p = 0.11 p = 0.52 p = 0.33 p = 0.61 p = 0.41
  Girls
Low tertile n = 220/220 221/281 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Medium tertile n = 222/222 221/275 0.03 (−0.16; 0.21) 0.02 (−0.17; 0.21) −0.06 (−0.24; 0.12) −0.05 (−0.24; 0.13) −0.02 (−0.21; 0.18) −0.04 (−0.24; 0.16) −0.02 (−0.18; 0.09) −0.05 (−0.18; 0.09)
High tertile n = 229/228 226/269 −0.08 (−0.26; 0.10) −0.09 (−0.28; 0.10) 0.08 (−0.11; 0.26) 0.09 (−0.10; 0.27) −0.02 (−0.21; 0.17) −0.03 (−0.23; 0.16) 0.10 (−0.04; 0.24) 0.10 (−0.04; 0.24)
Trend p = 0.39 p = 0.33 p = 0.40 p = 0.34 p = 0.85 p = 0.75 p = 0.06 p = 0.15
  1. Values are linear regression coefficients (95 % confidence interval) and reflect the difference in outcome (specific SD scores) for medium and high sugar-containing beverage intake, as compared to the lowest category of intake
  2. Trend tests were performed using tertiles of sugar-containing beverage intake as continuous variable in the model
  3. Insulin was root-transformed before standardization
  4. Model A is adjusted for age at measurements and total energy intake (and child sex in the analysis of the total population)
  5. Model B is additionally adjusted for maternal age, BMI, education level, smoking during pregnancy, folic acid supplement use during pregnancy, breastfeeding of the child, diet quality score, and hours of TV watching at age 2)
  6. N per tertile are number of children in the tertiles for HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and preperitoneal fat, respectively