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Table 6 Associations between sweetened beverage consumption and percentage body fat, analyses including adjustment for height and height squared

From: Sugar and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and adiposity changes: National longitudinal study

   Unadjusted coefficient at age 11 (95 % CI) Adjusted coefficient at age 11 (95 % CI) Unadjusted coefficient age 7–11 (95 % CI) Adjusted coefficient age 7–11 (95 % CI)
Sugar sweetened beverages
Sugar sweetened beverage consumption at age 11a Weekly 0.34 (0.00; 0.68) 0.31 (−0.01; 0.64) 0.48 (0.24; 0.73) 0.42 (0.18; 0.67)
Daily 0.57 (0.20; 0.94) 0.52 (0.15; 0.88) 0.61 (0.35; 0.86) 0.54 (0.28; 0.80)
Artificially sweetened beverages
Artificially sweetened beverage consumption at age 11b Weekly 1.20 (0.80; 1.61) 0.78 (0.39; 1.17) 0.36 (0.05; 0.67) 0.26 (−0.03; 0.56)
Daily 1.39 (1.03; 1.74) 1.04 (0.69; 1.39) 0.40 (0.16; 0.64) 0.33 (0.08; 0.59)
  1. aReference group children consuming sugar sweetened beverages less than once a week/never
  2. bReference group children consuming artificially sweetened beverages less than once a week/never
  3. Weekly consumption = 1–6 days a week, Daily consumption = once a day/more than once a day
  4. CI – Confidence intervals. Adjusted models adjusted for: age (in months), sex, ethnic group, equivalised income, mother’s highest educational qualification, country, portions of fruit consumer per day, breakfast consumption, days per week of sport/exercise, hours spent watching TV per weekday and mode of transport to school, being on a controlled diet at age7and snacking at age 7. Models of change in adiposity adjusted for adiposity at age 7