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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of 9 individual cohort studies included in the meta-analysis, n = 119,396 participants

From: Independent and combined effects of physical activity and body mass index on the development of Type 2 Diabetes – a meta-analysis of 9 prospective cohort studies

  Cohort Country N Mean age % male Mean time to T2D event (Years) % Incident cases T2D (Absolute number) PA categories % (Absolute number) BMI categories % (Absolute number) Mean BMI
1 Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) [18] Australia 9599 49.6 0 % 4.9 4.6 % (441) Low = 17.7 % (1695) underweight = 1.6 % (140) 26.2
Med = 25.8 % (2474) normal weight = 47.8 % (4592)
High = 56.6 % (5430) mod overweight = 31.6 % (3036)
  obese = 19.1 % (1831)
2 The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study (AusDiab) [24] Australia 4327 47.1 46 % 4.3 3.0 % (130) Low = 39.6 % (1712) underweight = 0.8 % (35) 26.5
Med = 57.8 % (2503) normal weight = 40.4 % (1748)
High = 2.6 % (112) mod overweight = 39.5 % (1709)
obese = 19.3 % (835)
3 British Regional Heart Study (BRHS) [16] United Kingdom 4720 49.3 100 % 7.0 1.7 % (82) Low = 31.3 % (2547) underweight = 0.4 % (19) 25.4
Med = 14.8 % (698) normal weight = 46.4 % (2188)
High = 54.0 % (2547) mod overweight = 46.3 % (2184)
obese = 7.0 % (329)
4 Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) [17] United Kingdom 2034 56.6 100 % 4.7 4.9 % (99) Low = 0 % (0) underweight = 1.2 % (25) 26.4
Med = 18.6 % (378) normal weight = 32.5 % (660)
High = 81.4 % (1656) mod overweight = 52.4 % (1065)
obese = 14.0 % (284)
5 Cancer prevention study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) United States 86368 58.7 42 % 6.3 11.5 % (9948) Low = 1.3 % (1119) underweight = 1.1 % (969) 26.1
Med = 30.3 % (26166) normal weight = 43.8 % (37851)
High = 68.4 % (59083) mod overweight = 39.5 % (34123)
obese = 15.5 % (13425)
6 Doetinchem Cohort Study [25] The Netherlands 3401 46.7 44 % 5.6 2.0 % (67) Low =0.7 % (24) underweight = 0.8 % (27) 25.6
Med = 2.1 % (71) normal weight = 47.2 % (1605)
High = 97 % (3306) mod overweight = 40.7 % (1383)
obese = 11.4 % (386)
7 Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) Finland 1087 51.7 100 % 4.2 5.1 % (55) Low = 0.6 % (6) underweight = 0.1 % (1) 26.8
Med = 11.4 % (124) normal weight = 34.4 % (374)
High = 88 % (957) mod overweight = 50.4 % (548)
obese = 15.1 % (164)
8 Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (PALS) [19] Canada 1487 41.0 48 % 8.8 2.2 % (32) Low = 2.1 % (31) underweight = 2.2 % (32) 25.2
Med = 30 % (446) normal weight = 50.7 % (754)
High = 67.9 % (1010) mod overweight = 36.3 % (540)
obese = 10.8 % (161)
9 Whitehall-II study (WH-II) [26] United Kingdom 4855 49.1 70 % 8.5 7.9 % (383) Low = 0 % (0) underweight = 0.95 (46) 25.3
Med = 10 % (508) normal weight = 51.99 (2524)
High = 89.5 % (4347) mod overweight = 38.00 (1845)
obese = 9.06 (440)