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Table 4 Associations between socio-demographic variables and percentage of energy from processed-food groups; UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey, 2008-12

From: Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–12)

   % energy from unprocessed or minimally processed foods % energy from processed ingredients % energy from unprocessed or minimally processed foods AND processed ingredients % energy from ultra-processed food products
Variable Level % energy, mean (95 % CI)1 Adjusted2 coefficient (95% CI) % energy, mean (95 % CI) Adjusted coefficient (95 % CI) % energy, mean (95 % CI) Adjusted coefficient (95% CI) % energy, mean (95 % CI) Adjusted coefficient (95 % CI)
Gender Male 26.2 (25.4 to 27.1) Reference 13.2 (12.6 to 13.8) Reference 39.4 (38.4 to 40.4) Reference 53.3 (52.3 to 54.4) Reference
  Female 29.3 (28.6 to 30.0) 2.28 (1.21 to 3.34) 13.5 (13.0 to 14.1) −0.36 (−1.15 to 0.44) 42.9 (51.9 to 53.7) 1.92 (0.62 to 3.22) 52.8 (51.9 to 53.7) −1.38 (−2.67 to −0.09)
Occupational social class Managerial & prof. 28.4 (27.6 to 29.2) Reference 12.9 (12.3 to 13.4) Reference 41.3 (40.3 to 42.3) Reference 52.0 (51.0 to 53.0) Reference
Intermediate 28.4 (27.3 to 29.4) −0.83 (−2.10 to 0.44) 13.5 (12.8 to 14.2) 0.17 (−0.73 to 1.06) 41.9 (40.7 to 43.1) −0.66 (−2.14 to 0.81) 53.3 (52.1 to 54.5) 0.34 (−1.12 to 1.79)
Routine & manual 26.2 (25.2 to 27.3) −2.62 (−3.88 to −1.35) 13.8 (12.9 to 14.7) 0.56 (−0.48 to 1.59) 40.0 (38.5 to 41.5) −2.06 (−3.73 to −0.39) 54.7 (53.2 to 56.1) 1.60 (−0.05 to 3.26)
Age group3 18–29 years 23.5 (21.9 to 25.0) 0.16 (0.13 to 0.19) 13.2 (12.1 to 14.3) 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.04) 36.2 (34.3 to 38.0) 0.18 (0.15 to 0.22) 58.2 (56.3 to 60.2) −0.18 (−0.21 to −0.14)
30–39 years 25.7 (24.6 to 26.8)   13.2 (12.4 to 14.0)   38.9 (37.5 to 40.2)   55.9 (54.5 to 57.3)  
  40–49 years 27.1 (25.9 to 28.2)   13.4 (12.5 to 14.3)   40.4 (39.0 to 41.9)   52.2 (50.7 to 53.6)  
  50–59 years 29.7 (28.4 to 30.9)   13.4 (12.2 to 14.5)   43.0 (41.3 to 44.8)   49.7 (48.1 to 51.3)  
  60–69 years 32.5 (31.3 to 33.7)   12.7 (11.8 to 13.6)   45.2 (43.8 to 46.5)   49.0 (47.5 to 50.5)  
  70+ years 31.4 (30.1 to 32.7)   14.6 (13.7 to 15.5)   46.0 (44.5 to 47.5)   50.6 (49.0 to 52.2)  
All   27.8 (27.3 to 28.4) NA 13.4 (13.0 to 13.8) NA 41.2 (40.5 to 41.9)   53.1 (52.4 to 53.7) NA
  1. 1 CI Confidence interval; 2linear regression coefficient simultaneously adjusted for gender, occupational social class, age and percentage of energy from alcohol; 3descriptive statistics are shown by age group, age was entered into linear regression models as a continuous variable