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Table 5 Intake of foods & nutrients according to tertiles of intake of food-processing groups; UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey, 2008−12

From: Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–12)

  Total daily, mean (95 % CI)1 Percent of energy derived from, mean (95 % CI)
  Fruit & veg, portions Fibre, g Sodium, mg Protein Fat Saturated fat Carbohydrates Free sugars
Tertiles of percentage of energy from unprocessed or minimally processed foods
 1 (lowest) 2.9 (2.8 to 3.1) 12.6 (12.1 to 13.0) 2541 (2454 to 2628) 14.6 (14.3 to 14.8) 33.5 (32.9 to 34.1) 12.6 (12.3 to 12.9) 46.0 (45.3 to 46.6) 13.6 (13.0 to 14.2)
 2 4.0 (3.9 to 4.2) 14.3 (13.9 to 14.6) 2305 (2243 to 2368) 16.2 (15.9 to 16.4) 33.5 (33.0 to 34.0) 12.5 (12.3 to 12.8) 45.7 (45.1 to 46.3) 11.4 (10.9 to 11.8)
 3 (highest) 4.9 (4.7 to 5.1) 14.4 (14.0 to 14.8) 1938 (1874 to 2001) 18.7 (18.3 to 19.1) 32.6 (32.0 to 33.1) 11.9 (11.6 to 12.2) 45.3 (44.6 to 45.9) 9.6 (9.2 to 10.1)
 Adj2 coefficient (95 % CI) 0.07 (0.06 to 0.08) 0.07 (0.04 to 0.09) −19.2 (−22.8 to −15.6) 0.18 (0.15 to 0.22) −0.08 (−0.75 to 0.50) −0.07 (−0.08 to −0.05) −0.10 (−0.14 to −0.06) −0.16 (−0.19 to −0.13)
Tertiles of percentage of energy from processed ingredients
 1 (lowest) 3.9 (3.7 to 4.1) 13.7 (13.3 to 14.1) 2315 (2243 to 2387) 16.8 (16.4 to 17.2) 32.2 (31.5 to 32.8) 11.7 (11.4 to 11.9) 44.7 (44.0 to 45.4) 11.6 (11.0 to 12.2)
 2 4.1 (3.9 to 4.3) 14.0 (13.6 to 14.4) 2323 (2240 to 2406) 16.5 (16.2 to 16.8) 33.5 (33.0 to 34.0) 12.5 (12.2 to 12.8) 45.2 (44.6 to 45.7) 11.5 (11.1 to 12.0)
 3 (highest) 3.9 (3.7 to 4.0) 13.6 (13.2 to 14.0) 2146 (2078 to 2214) 16.2 (15.9 to 16.5) 33.9 (33.4 to 34.5) 12.8 (12.5 to 13.1) 46.9 (46.3 to 47.5) 11.4 (10.9 to 11.9)
 Adj coefficient (95 % CI) 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01) −0.02 (−0.06 to −1.89) −9.8 (−15.4 to −4.3) −0.07 (−0.10 to −0.04) 0.03 (−0.02 to 0.07) 0.02 (−0.01 to 0.04) 0.05 (−0.01 to 0.09) −0.01 (−0.06 to 0.03)
Tertiles of percentage of energy from unprocessed or minimally processed foods AND processed ingredients
 1 (lowest) 3.1 (2.9 to 3.3) 12.9 (12.5 to 13.3) 2560 (2474 to 2646) 14.8 (14.5 to 15.1) 33.0 (32.4 to 33.6) 12.2 (11.9 to 12.5) 45.6 (44.9 to 46.3) 13.4 (12.8 to 14.0)
 2 4.0 (3.8 to 4.2) 14.1 (13.7 to 14.5) 2323 (2258 to 2387) 16.5 (16.3 to 16.8) 33.5 (33.0 to 34.0) 12.7 (12.4 to 12.9) 45.4 (44.8 to 45.9) 11.0 (10.6 to 11.4)
 3 (highest) 4.7 (4.5 to 4.9) 14.2 (13.8 to 14.7) 1907 (1848 to 1967) 18.1 (17.7 to 18.5) 33.1 (32.5 to 33.7) 12.2 (11.9 to 12.5) 45.9 (45.3 to 46.6) 10.2 (9.8 to 10.7)
 Adj coefficient (95 % CI) 0.05 (0.04 to 0.06) 0.04 (0.02 to 0.06) −17.1 (−20.4 to −13.8) 0.10 (0.07 to 0.13) −0.05 (−0.08 to −0.02) −0.04 (−0.05 to −0.03) −0.05 (−0.09 to −0.02) −0.11 (−0.14 to −0.09)
Tertiles of percentage of energy from ultra-processed food products
 1 (lowest) 4.6 (4.4 to 4.8) 13.9 (13.5 to 14.3) 1987 (1923 to 2051) 17.5 (17.1 to 17.9) 31.8 (31.2 to 32.5) 11.6 (11.3 to 11.9) 43.3 (42.6 to 44.0) 10.0 (9.6 to 10.4)
 2 4.1 (3.9 to 4.2) 14.1 (13.7 to 14.5) 2288 (2223 to 2352) 16.5 (16.2 to 16.8) 33.3 (32.9 to 33.8) 12.6 (12.4 to 12.9) 45.9 (45.4 to 46.4) 11.5 (11.1 to 12.0)
 3 (highest) 3.2 (3.0 to 3.3) 13.3 (12.9 to 13.8) 2512 (2425 to 2598) 15.5 (15.2 to 15.8) 34.5 (34.0 to 35.0) 12.8 (12.6 to 13.1) 47.8 (47.2 to 48.4) 13.1 (12.5 to 13.7)
 Adj coefficient (95 % CI) −0.05 (−0.06 to −0.04) −0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02) 17.2 (13.9 to 20.6) −0.10 (−0.13 to −0.07) 0.05 (0.02 to 0.08) 0.04 (0.03 to 0.05) 0.05 (0.01 to 0.08) 0.10 (0.08 to 0.13)
 All         
 Recommended3 At least 5.0 >25 <2000 10–15 15–30 <10 55–75 <10
  1. 1CI: confidence interval; 2linear regression coefficient adjusted for gender, occupational social class, age, and percentage energy from alcohol; 3population intake ranges recommended by the World Health Organization and Food & Agriculture Organization in order to prevent diet related chronic diseases