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Table 6 Associations between percentage of energy from processed-food groups and overweight and obesity; UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey, 2008–12

From: Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–12)

Percentage of energy from Adjusted1 linear regression coefficient for body mass index (95% CI)2 Adjusted odds ratio of being overweight or obese (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio of being obese (95% CI)
Unprocessed or minimally processed foods 0.02 (−0.02 to 0.07) 1.00 (0.99 to 1.01) 1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)
Processed ingredients −0.09 (−0.16 to -0.03) 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99) 0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)
Unprocessed or minimally processed foods AND processed ingredients −0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02) 0.99 (0.98 to 0.99) 0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)
Ultra-processed food products 0.02 (−0.02 to 0.07) 1.01 (1.00 to 1.02) 1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)
  1. 1adjusted for gender, occupational social class, age and percentage of energy from alcohol; 2 CI Confidence intervals