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Table 2 Percentage of individuals reporting no PA, China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009a,b

From: Differential associations of urbanicity and income with physical activity in adults in urbanizing China: findings from the population-based China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009

  Men Women
  1991 2000 2009 1991 2000 2009
Total PA (proportion of sample reporting zero)
Low Urbanicity      
  Low Income 0.5 (0.3)* 2.7 (0.6)* 7.6 (1.1)* 0.7 (0.3)* 1.0 (0.4)* 2.6 (0.6)*
  Med Income 0.2 (0.2)* 1.8 (0.6)* 3.1 (0.8)* 0.6 (0.4)* 1.6 (0.6)* 2.5 (0.7)*
  High Income 1.4 (0.6) 0.8 (0.5)* 4.5 (1.0)* 0.8 (0.5)* 1.1 (0.5)* 3.2 (0.9)*
Med Urbanicity      
  Low Income 2.3 (0.7)* 5.8 (1.1)* 12.4 (1.5)* 0.7 (0.4)* 5.2 (1.0)* 4.3 (0.9)*
  Med Income 3.1 (0.9)* 3.3 (0.8)* 7.6 (1.2)* 1.8 (0.6) 3.5 (0.8) 3.2 (0.8)
  High Income 1.7 (0.6)* 3.5 (0.8)* 5.4 (1.0)* 0.6 (0.3) 2.1 (0.6) 2.1 (0.6)
High Urbanicity      
  Low Income 4.2 (1.2)* 11.4 (1.7)* 16.9 (2.0)* 0.9 (0.5)* 6.5 (1.2)* 2.8 (0.8)*
  Med Income 2.7 (0.7)* 8.7 (1.3)* 11.5 (1.4)* 2.3 (0.6) 3.5 (0.8) 2.0 (0.6)
  High Income 4.2 (1.2)* 11.4 (1.7)* 16.9 (2.0)* 0.9 (0.5) 6.5 (1.2) 2.8 (0.8)
Occupational PA (proportion of sample reporting zero)
Low Urbanicity      
  Low Income 0.7 (0.3)* 5.0 (0.8)* 13.0 (1.4)* 1.3 (0.5)* 8.7 (1.1)* 20.7 (1.6)*
  Med Income 0.7 (0.4)* 3.7 (0.9)* 7.3 (1.2)* 0.9 (0.4)* 6.2 (1.1)* 14.5 (1.6)*
  High Income 1.7 (0.7) 4.9 (1.1)* 6.8 (1.2)* 2.4 (0.8)* 3.7 (1.0)* 13.1 (1.7)*
Med Urbanicity      
  Low Income 3.6 (0.9)* 15.9 (1.7)* 29.3 (2.1)* 10.1 (1.3)* 26.3 (2.0)* 37.3 (2.1)*
  Med Income 3.6 (1.0)* 10.6 (1.4)* 18.9 (1.8)* 6.6 (1.2)* 19.6 (1.7)* 30.8 (2.1)*
  High Income 2.3 (0.7)* 8.5 (1.3)* 16.0 (1.6)* 4.3 (0.9)* 13.9 (1.5)* 28.7 (2.0)*
High Urbanicity      
  Low Income 9.0 (1.7)* 46.4 (2.7)* 55.3 (2.7)* 25.6 (2.5)* 61.3 (2.4)* 69.4 (2.2)*
  Med Income 5.1 (1.0)* 31.9 (2.1)* 35.7 (2.1)* 11.5 (1.3)* 39.2 (2.1)* 56.5 (2.1)*
  High Income 5.6 (1.0) 18.0 (1.5)* 28.2 (1.9)* 12.3 (1.4)* 33.5 (1.8)* 46.7 (2.0)*
Domestic PA (proportion of sample reporting zero)
Low Urbanicity      
  Low Income 50.3 (2.1)* 63.8 (1.9)* 45.9 (2.1)* 6.6 (1.0)* 11.9 (1.2)* 5.8 (0.9)*
  Med Income 55.7 (2.4)* 56.1 (2.3)* 48.7 (2.2)* 7.7 (1.2)* 11.1 (1.4)* 5.4 (1.0)*
  High Income 52.8 (2.7)* 54.6 (2.6)* 51.9 (2.4)* 12.8 (1.7)* 11.7 (1.7)* 7.5 (1.3)*
Med Urbanicity      
  Low Income 45.4 (2.3)* 63.4 (2.2)* 45.7 (2.2)* 3.9 (0.8)* 13.3 (1.5)* 6.5 (1.0)*
  Med Income 51.2 (2.6)* 53.4 (2.2)* 52.1 (2.3)* 8.2 (1.3)* 12.1 (1.4)* 6.0 (1.1)*
  High Income 47.4 (2.3)* 52.4 (2.3)* 52.1 (2.2)* 12.1 (1.4)* 9.8 (1.3)* 7.9 (1.2)*
High Urbanicity      
  Low Income 37.4 (2.9)* 47.3 (2.7)* 40.1 (2.6)* 4.4 (1.2)* 15.7 (1.8)* 7.8 (1.3)*
  Med Income 36.7 (2.1)* 47.2 (2.2)* 44.9 (2.2)* 7.7 (1.1)* 13.8 (1.5)* 8.1 (1.2)*
  High Income 41.4 (2.1)* 45.2 (2.0)* 42.0 (2.1) 8.2 (1.2)* 14.8 (1.4)* 8.3 (1.1)*
Leisure PA (proportion of sample reporting zero)
Low Urbanicity      
  Low Income   94.7 (0.9)* 98.5 (0.5)*   99.0 (0.4) 99.1 (0.4
  Med Income   94.5 (1.1)* 98.0 (0.6)*   97.1 (0.8) 99.0 (0.4)
  High Income   91.4 (1.5)* 95.3 (1.0)*   98.9 (0.5) 97.1 (0.8)
Med Urbanicity      
  Low Income   91.4 (1.3) 93.9 (1.1)   97.3 (0.7) 94.3 (1.0)
  Med Income   87.5 (1.5) 90.5 (1.3)   93.3 (1.0)* 91.9 (1.2)*
  High Income   85.3 (1.6) 85.5 (1.5)   94.9 (1.0)* 91.5 (1.2)*
High Urbanicity      
  Low Income   84.7 (2.0) 88.3 (1.7)   92.5 (1.3)* 88.7 (1.5)*
  Med Income   80.0 (1.8)* 78.9 (1.8)*   88.7 (1.4)* 81.4 (1.7)*
  High Income   77.3 (1.7)* 74.4 (1.8)*   88.1 (1.3)* 79.9 (1.6)*
Active Commuting PA (proportion of sample reporting zero)
Low Urbanicity      
  Low Income   44.1 (1.9)* 43.3 (2.0)*   48.9 (1.9)* 50.5 (2.0)*
  Med Income   34.9 (2.2)* 49.9 (2.2)*   35.6 (2.2)* 50.0 (2.2)*
  High Income   37.3 (2.5)* 54.7 (2.4)*   32.5 (2.4)* 55.5 (2.5)*
Med Urbanicity      
  Low Income   54.0 (2.3)* 62.6 (2.2)*   53.3 (2.3)* 63.4 (2.0)*
  Med Income   42.6 (2.2)* 56.8 (2.2)*   39.8 (2.0)* 57.3 (2.2)*
  High Income   43.7 (2.3)* 60.4 (2.2)*   42.7 (2.1)* 56.4 (2.2)*
High Urbanicity      
  Low Income   42.5 (2.7)* 73.1 (2.4)*   42.1 (2.5)* 85.5 (1.7)*
  Med Income   41.9 (2.2)* 63.3 (2.1)*   36.1 (2.1)* 74.2 (1.9)*
  High Income   39.5 (2.0)* 61.7 (2.0)*   31.9 (1.8)* 67.4 (1.9)*
  1. aCells represent percent (standard error)
  2. bUrbanicity separated into year-specific tertiles (low, medium, and high urbanicity). Household income is separated into year-specific tertiles (low, medium, and high urbanicity)
  3. *Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the proportion of individuals reporting zero PA at a specific income or urbanicity level using a Chi-Squared test
  4. Abbreviations: PA, physical activity