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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 150,969 participants from the 45 and Up Study by frequency of fruit and vegetable intakesa

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study

   Quartiles of fruit intakeb Quartiles of vegetable intakeb Quartiles of combined fruit and vegetable intakeb
Variable Overall Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Number of subjects 150,969 12,960 50,766 50,111 37,132 54,562 24,460 40,979 30,968 37,467 43,004 34,779 35,719
Mean servings per day (SD)   0.001 (0.02) 1.01 (0.05) 2.00 (0.00) 3.73 (1.46) 1.65 (0.57) 2.99 (0.08) 4.39 (0.49) 7.83 (2.61) 2.44 (0.80) 4.49 (0.50) 6.44 (0.50) 10.27 (3.12)
Age group (%)
 45 to 59 years 56.5 64.5 58.3 55.6 52.4 59.1 59.4 55.2 51.3 59.9 59.4 55.2 50.7
 60 to 74 years 33.5 28.5 32.0 34.3 36.3 30.7 31.1 35.2 38.0 30.1 31.2 35.1 38.2
 ≥75 years 10.0 7.1 9.7 10.1 11.3 10.3 9.4 9.6 10.7 10.0 9.4 9.7 11.1
Women (%) 55.2 41.2 48.0 61.4 61.6 40.5 55.3 65.7 67.1 36.6 54.1 64.8 66.7
College or higher education (%) 27.0 18.0 26.0 28.5 29.5 26.1 31.9 29.0 22.1 24.1 29.8 29.1 24.7
Married/de facto (%) 77.7 73.0 78.8 78.6 76.8 74.7 78.6 80.3 78.9 74.3 78.4 79.9 78.4
Location of residence
 Major city (%) 45.3 42.2 44.5 45.5 47.0 47.9 47.6 44.3 40.1 46.9 46.9 44.9 41.9
 Rural/remote (%) 54.7 57.8 55.5 54.5 53.0 52.1 52.4 55.7 59.9 53.1 53.1 55.1 58.1
Socio-economic status (SEIFA-IRSD) (%)
 Quintile 1 (most disadvantaged) 19.1 22.6 20.0 18.1 17.9 19.1 17.5 18.3 21.3 20.0 18.2 18.1 20.2
 Quintile 2 19.1 20.7 19.0 19.1 18.8 18.8 18.4 19.1 20.2 19.0 18.7 18.9 19.8
 Quintile 3 21.0 21.4 21.1 21.0 20.5 20.6 20.1 21.1 22.2 20.9 20.2 21.2 21.7
 Quintile 4 20.1 19.4 19.6 20.5 20.6 20.0 20.6 20.6 19.3 19.8 20.4 20.5 19.7
 Quintile 5 (least disadvantaged) 20.7 15.9 20.2 21.4 22.2 21.4 23.4 21.0 17.0 20.3 22.5 21.3 18.6
Current smoking (%) 7.5 21.2 9.2 5.0 3.8 9.9 6.6 5.8 6.2 12.7 7.0 5.3 4.9
Hours of sleep (%)
 <7 h/day 15.1 19.8 15.2 13.9 15.0 16.9 13.9 13.5 15.0 17.3 14.7 13.6 14.7
 7–9 h/day 67.6 60.7 66.9 69.5 68.6 66.3 69.1 68.8 67.3 65.0 68.7 68.9 68.0
 ≥9 h/day 17.3 19.6 17.8 16.7 16.4 16.7 17.0 17.7 17.7 17.7 16.6 17.5 17.3
Physical activity category (%)
 10–149 min/week 19.1 29.0 21.9 16.9 14.8 22.9 18.5 16.7 16.1 25.7 19.0 16.0 15.2
 150–299 min/week 16.1 17.2 17.2 15.9 14.3 17.0 17.2 15.8 13.8 17.5 17.0 15.8 13.7
 ≥300 min/week 64.8 53.8 61.0 67.2 70.8 60.0 64.4 67.5 70.1 56.7 64.0 68.1 71.1
Multivitamin use (%) 3.2 2.9 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.2 2.9 3.1
Self-rated health (%)
 Excellent 18.3 12.4 15.7 19.2 22.8 15.7 18.7 20.0 20.4 13.8 18.1 20.0 21.7
 Very good 40.6 33.2 40.0 42.2 41.7 38.4 40.8 42.3 42.0 36.8 41.1 42.6 42.0
 Good 31.4 37.0 33.7 30.2 27.7 34.0 31.4 29.5 29.1 35.9 31.6 29.3 28.3
 Fair 8.5 14.7 9.3 7.4 6.9 10.4 8.1 7.2 7.6 11.7 8.2 7.3 7.0
 Poor 1.2 2.7 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.8 1.1 0.8 0.9
BMI category (%)              
 Underweight and normal weight (≤18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2) 39.0 34.9 37.7 39.1 42.1 37.3 41.1 40.3 38.7 36.5 39.3 40.3 40.0
 Overweight (25.0 to <30.0 kg/m2) 39.4 39.3 40.5 39.2 38.0 41.5 38.8 37.9 37.9 41.6 39.8 38.0 37.8
 Obese (≥30.0 kg/m2) 21.6 25.8 21.8 21.7 19.9 21.2 20.1 21.8 23.4 21.8 21.0 21.7 22.2
Physician diagnosed diabetes (%) 7.0 5.9 6.4 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.3 6.9 7.7 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.7
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, min minutes, IRSD Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, Q quartile of intake, SD standard deviation, SEIFA Socio-Economic Indexes For Areas
  2. aData are presented as means (SD) or percentages (%)
  3. bThe quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables (servings/day) were as follows: Fruit: Q1: <1.0; Q2: 1.0 to <2.0; Q3: 2.0 to <2.3; Q4: ≥2.3. Vegetables: Q1: ≤2.0; Q2: 2.0 to ≤3.0; Q3: 3.0 to ≤5.0, Q4: >5.0. Fruit and vegetables combined: Q1: <4.0; Q2: 4 to ≤5.0; Q3: >5.0 to ≤7.0; Q4: >7.0