Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of all-cause mortality by quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables (n = 150,969)

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study

  Quartilesa  
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for trend
HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI  
Fruit and vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.80 0.75,0.85 0.70 0.65,0.75 0.76 0.71,0.81 <0.0001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.89 0.83,0.95 0.79 0.73,0.85 0.77 0.72,0.83 <0.0001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.99 0.93,1.06 0.92 0.86,0.99 0.90 0.84,0.97 0.002
Fruit intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.91 0.83,1.00 0.78 0.72,0.86 0.78 0.71,0.85 <0.001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.75 0.69,0.83 0.66 0.60,0.72 0.62 0.56,0.68 <0.001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.91 0.83,0.99 0.86 0.78,0.94 0.84 0.76,0.93 0.001
Vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.78 0.72,0.84 0.71 0.66,0.75 0.79 0.74,0.85 <0.0001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.87 0.81,0.94 0.81 0.76,0.87 0.82 0.77,0.88 <0.0001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.95 0.88,1.02 0.92 0.86,0.99 0.93 0.87,1.00 0.017
Cooked vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.74 0.68,0.80 0.87 0.81,0.94 0.88 0.81,0.95 0.004
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.86 0.80,0.93 0.89 0.83,0.97 0.80 0.74,0.86 <0.0001
Model 3c (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.92 0.85,1.00 0.98 0.90,1.06 0.87 0.80,0.95 0.003
Raw vegetable intakea
Model 1 (crude) 1.0 Reference 0.62 0.57,0.66 0.56 0.50,0.61 0.65 0.59,0.72 <0.0001
Model 2b (age, sex adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.76 0.70,0.82 0.76 0.69,0.84 0.77 0.70,0.85 0.0005
Model 3 (adjusted) 1.0 Reference 0.87 0.81,0.94 0.92 0.84,1.02 0.94 0.85,1.04 0.793
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, Q quartile
  2. aThe quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables (servings/day) were as follows: Fruit and vegetables combined: Q1: <4.0; Q2: 4 to ≤ 5.0; Q3: 5.0 to ≤7.0; Q4: >7.0. Fruit: Q1: <1.0; Q2: 1.0 to <2.0; Q3: 2.0 to <2.3; Q4: ≥2.3. Vegetables: Q1: ≤2.0; Q2: 2.0 to ≤3.0; Q3: 3.0 to ≤5.0, Q4: >5.0. Cooked vegetables: Q1: ≤1.0; Q2: 1.0 to ≤2.0; Q3: 2.0 to ≤3.0, Q4: >3.0. Raw vegetables: Q1: <1.0; Q2: 1.0 to <1.3; Q3: 1.3 to ≤ 2.0; Q4: >2.0
  3. bModel 2 was adjusted for age (continuous) and sex
  4. cModel 3 was adjusted for age (categorical), sex, education level, marital status, location of residence, socio-economic status, smoking status, physical activity categories, multi-vitamin use, processed meat consumption, diabetes and body mass index categories. Any significant (P < 0.05) interactions (shown in Table 3) with age group, sex, education level, body mass index categories and smoking status, were included in this model. The model for fruit was adjusted for vegetable intake and vice versa