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Table 3 Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of all-cause mortality by quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables by effect modifiers

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: evidence from a large Australian cohort study

Effect value for significant interactions Quartilesa  
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P for interaction
HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI HR 95 % CI  
Fruit and vegetable intakea
Male 1.0 Reference 1.03 (0.95,1.12) 0.97 (0.88,1.06) 1.01 (0.92,1.11) 0.002
Female 1.0 Reference 0.89 (0.79,0.99) 0.80 (0.71,0.91) 0.76 (0.67,0.85)
Fruit intakea
45 to 59 years 1.0 Reference 0.83 (0.68,1.01) 0.88 (0.72,1.08) 0.86 (0.69,1.07) 0.045
60 to 74 years 1.0 Reference 0.84 (0.73,0.98) 0.80 (0.68,0.93) 0.82 (0.69,0.96)  
≥75 years 1.0 Reference 1.13 (0.98,1.30) 1.05 (0.91,1.21) 0.98 (0.84,1.13)  
Vegetable intakea
Male 1.0 Reference 0.94 (0.86,1.04) 0.94 (0.86,1.03) 1.04 (0.94,1.14) 0.012
Female 1.0 Reference 0.94 (0.77,1.14) 0.84 (0.76,0.93) 0.82 (0.73,0.92)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, Q quartile
  2. aThe quartiles of intake for fruit and vegetables (servings/day) were as follows: Fruit and vegetables combined: Q1: <4.0; Q2: 4 to ≤ 5.0; Q3: 5.0 to ≤7.0; Q4: >7.0. Fruit: Q1: <1.0; Q2: 1.0 to <2.0; Q3: 2.0 to <2.3; Q4: ≥2.3. Vegetables: Q1: ≤2.0; Q2: 2.0 to ≤3.0; Q3: 3.0 to ≤5.0, Q4: >5.0