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Table 3 Mean and standard deviation of the daily food consumption frequency of men and women by dietary clustersa

From: A comparison of the dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis and cluster analysis in older Australians

  Menb Womenc
  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3
Food groups n = 474 (25 %) n = 343 (18 %) n = 1071 (57 %) n = 525 (25 %) n = 409 (20 %) n = 1137 (55 %)
Vegetables and fruit       
 Vegetable dishes 1.85 (1.10) d 1.25 (0.87)e 1.00 (0.62) f 2.42 (1.28) d 1.46 (0.94)e 1.26 (0.78) f
 Salad vegetables 2.18 (1.19) d 1.40 (0.95)e 1.16 (0.72) f 2.97 (1.34) d 1.76 (1.02)e 1.48 (0.80) f
 Dark green and cruciferous vegetables 1.22 (0.92) d 0.76 (0.72)e 0.57 (0.47) f 1.56 (0.90) d 0.95 (0.70)e 0.73 (0.55) f
 Orange vegetables 1.14 (0.70) d 0.83 (0.59)e 0.61 (0.41) f 1.32 (0.73) d 1.13 (0.66)e 0.76 (0.46) f
 Potato 0.48 (0.39)d 0.62 (0.58) e 0.36 (0.28) f 0.37 (0.34)d 0.64 (0.47) e 0.34 (0.29)d
 Other vegetables 2.05 (1.06) d 1.50 (0.87)e 1.09 (0.58) f 2.50 (1.13) d 1.73 (0.90)e 1.33 (0.65) f
 Legumes/beans 0.31 (0.60) d 0.16 (0.38)e 0.12 (0.18)e 0.35 (0.47) d 0.11 (0.15)e 0.13 (0.19)e
 Fruit 3.13 (1.86) d 1.96 (1.73)e 1.58 (1.26) f 3.79 (2.05) d 2.41 (1.51)e 2.11 (1.43) f
 Dried fruit 0.30 (0.55) d 0.12 (0.34)e 0.09 (0.20)d 0.41 (0.57) d 0.19 (0.30)e 0.15 (0.28)e
 Nuts and/or seeds 0.84 (0.89) d 0.38 (0.43)e 0.33 (0.47)e 1.15 (1.06) d 0.51 (0.64)e 0.37 (0.45) e
Cereal       
 White bread 0.24 (0.51) d 1.22 (1.25) e 0.40 (0.61)f 0.11 (0.24) d 0.52 (0.88) e 0.25 (0.50)f
 Wholegrain bread 1.25 (1.10) d 0.60 (0.94)e 0.56 (0.64)e 0.90 (0.88)d 0.95 (0.97)d 0.56 (0.61) e
 Savoury crackers 0.55 (0.73) d 0.41 (0.56)e 0.24 (0.33) f 0.43 (0.51)d 0.59 (0.67) e 0.30 (0.34) f
 Muesli or porridge 0.58 (0.84) d 0.17 (0.34)e 0.23 (0.37)e 0.65 (0.72) d 0.31 (0.40)e 0.33 (0.47)e
 Breakfast cereal 0.53 (0.69)d 0.55 (0.77)d 0.40 (0.45) e 0.37 (0.64)d 0.54 (0.72) e 0.32 (0.45)d
 Rice 0.29 (0.39) d 0.15 (0.22)e 0.19 (0.32)e 0.29 (0.47) d 0.16 (0.17)e 0.17 (0.32)e
 Pasta 0.23 (0.20) d 0.17 (0.35)e 0.16 (0.16)e 0.19 (0.20)d 0.18 (0.36)d 0.14 (0.14) e
Meat       
 Red meat 0.78 (0.52)d 1.13 (0.80) e 0.67 (0.44) f 0.65 (0.56)d 0.92 (0.72) e 0.57 (0.39) f
 Processed or cured meat 0.40 (0.36)d 0.75 (0.62) e 0.34 (0.31) f 0.26 (0.37)d 0.47 (0.46) e 0.23 (0.22)d
 Poultry 0.31 (0.28) d 0.25 (0.25)e 0.19 (0.19) f 0.34 (0.39)d 0.34 (0.32)d 0.23 (0.22) e
 Fish and other seafood 0.49 (0.47) d 0.29 (0.27)e 0.28 (0.28)e 0.68 (0.62) d 0.32 (0.37)e 0.32 (0.27)e
 Fried or battered fish 0.07 (0.11)d 0.11 (0.12) e 0.05 (0.07) f 0.06 (0.30)d 0.06 (0.08)d 0.04 (0.07)d
 Eggs 0.27 (0.25)d 0.30 (0.29)d 0.19 (0.19) e 0.33 (0.38)d 0.29 (0.41)d 0.18 (0.18) e
Dairy       
 Flavoured milk drinks 0.05 (0.14)d 0.26 (0.64) e 0.06 (0.17)d 0.06 (0.23)d 0.10 (0.26) e 0.06 (0.23)d
 Whole milk 0.16 (0.42)d 0.69 (1.07) e 0.18 (0.44)d 0.05 (0.23)d 0.16 (0.60) e 0.09 (0.34)d
 Reduced fat milk 0.69 (0.98) d 0.26 (0.59) e 0.39 (0.57)f 0.61 (0.83) d 0.57 (0.76)e 0.45 (0.63)e
 Cream 0.07 (0.13)d 0.14 (0.38) e 0.05 (0.10)d 0.07 (0.16)d 0.14 (0.41) e 0.05 (0.12)d
 Ice-cream 0.20 (0.37)d 0.31 (0.33) e 0.15 (0.23) f 0.12 (0.19)d 0.32 (0.70) e 0.11 (0.19)d
 Yoghurt 0.50 (0.61) d 0.21 (0.42)e 0.19 (0.31)e 0.76 (0.84) d 0.33 (0.36)e 0.38 (0.48)e
 Cottage or ricotta cheese 0.08 (0.22) d 0.03 (0.11)e 0.03 (0.09)e 0.17 (0.31) d 0.03 (0.09)e 0.04 (0.11)e
 Cheddar cheese 0.53 (0.59)d 0.59 (0.69)d 0.32 (0.31) e 0.42 (0.41)d 0.55 (0.55) e 0.30 (0.29) f
Other       
 Water 3.05 (1.98) d 2.42 (2.01)e 2.06 (1.84) f 4.07 (2.00) d 3.25 (2.02)e 3.08 (2.07)e
 Coffee 1.56 (1.43)d 2.05 (1.78) e 1.67 (1.50)d 1.47 (1.35)d 1.43 (1.54)d 1.51 (1.43)d
 Tea 2.03 (1.59) d 1.69 (1.73)e 1.42 (1.53) f 2.08 (1.64)d 2.58 (1.79) e 1.77 (1.60) f
 Fruit or vegetable juice 0.48 (0.67)d 0.47 (0.64)d 0.29 (0.44) e 0.34 (0.62)d 0.30 (0.47)de 0.25 (0.40)e
 High-joule drinks 0.35 (0.63)d 1.16 (1.40) e 0.32 (0.50)d 0.17 (0.45)d 0.46 (0.90) e 0.18 (0.42)d
 Low-joule drink 0.17 (0.46)d 0.29 (0.84)e 0.22 (0.58)de 0.16 (0.45)d 0.36 (0.91) e 0.21 (0.61)d
 Beer 0.35 (0.57) d 1.05 (1.71) e 0.56 (1.06)f 0.05 (0.20)d 0.04 (0.18)d 0.06 (0.38)d
 Wine 0.59 (0.83) d 0.36 (0.61)e 0.45 (0.77)e 0.52 (0.75)d 0.46 (0.82)d 0.41 (0.71)d
 Spirits and liqueurs 0.08 (0.18)d 0.20 (0.58) e 0.10 (0.26)d 0.07 (0.22)d 0.12 (0.45) e 0.06 (0.21)d
 Cakes, pastries or desserts 0.39 (0.43)d 0.54 (0.56) e 0.21 (0.28) f 0.22 (0.26)d 0.56 (0.68) e 0.18 (0.21)d
 Sweet biscuits 0.37 (0.62)d 0.69 (0.91) e 0.22 (0.34) f 0.19 (0.37)d 0.66 (0.77) e 0.15 (0.23)d
 Chocolate or confectionery 0.29 (0.42)d 0.65 (0.81) e 0.19 (0.26) f 0.28 (0.44)d 0.60 (0.81) e 0.19 (0.28) f
 Meat pie or sausage rolls 0.05 (0.06)d 0.17 (0.37) e 0.06 (0.08)d 0.02 (0.06)d 0.06 (0.07) e 0.03 (0.05)d
 Pizza or Hamburger 0.08 (0.08)d 0.16 (0.17) e 0.07 (0.07)d 0.05 (0.07)d 0.07 (0.07) e 0.05 (0.06)d
 Spreads and preserves 0.81 (0.77)d 0.79 (0.97)d 0.41 (0.43) e 0.52 (0.55)d 0.83 (0.72) e 0.38 (0.43)d
 Potato chips etc. 0.05 (0.11)d 0.16 (0.26) e 0.05 (0.11)d 0.03 (0.08)d 0.12 (0.35) e 0.04 (0.08)d
 Oil and vinegar salad dressing 0.30 (0.34) d 0.21 (0.29)e 0.14 (0.21) f 0.42 (0.45) d 0.22 (0.24)e 0.20 (0.24)e
 Creamy salad dressing 0.13 (0.19)d 0.16 (0.25) e 0.07 (0.13) f 0.16 (0.25)d 0.20 (0.29) e 0.08 (0.13) f
 Margarine 0.69 (0.89)d 0.98 (1.24) e 0.47 (0.59) f 0.34 (0.53)d 0.98 (1.06) e 0.36 (0.52)d
 Butter 0.30 (0.61)d 0.63 (1.02) e 0.20 (0.42) f 0.25 (0.51)d 0.47 (0.74) e 0.20 (0.35)d
 Hot chips, roast potato or wedges 0.11 (0.18)d 0.26 (0.39) e 0.11 (0.13)d 0.09 (0.17)d 0.17 (0.21) e 0.08 (0.10)f
  1. aAll values are mean (SD) unless specified
  2. bMale clusters; cluster 1: fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, fish and poultry; cluster 2: red meat, processed meat, refined grains and high-energy drinks; cluster 3: small eaters
  3. cFemale clusters; cluster 1: fruit, vegetables and fish. Cluster 2: red meat, processed meat, cereals and confectionery. Cluster 3: small eaters
  4. d,e,fMean values between cluster without common letter differ, P<0.05 tested with ANOVA and bonferroni post hoc. The highest and lowest frequencies for each food group are marked bold and italic, respectively