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Table 1 Characteristics of study population (N = 3336)

From: Impact of offering cycle training in schools upon cycling behaviour: a natural experimental study

Variable Level Full study population (N = 3336) Control group (N = 773) Intervention group (N = 2563) P-value for difference
Sex Female 1667 (50 %) 366 (47 %) 1301 (51 %) 0.10 c
Male 1669 (50 %) 407 (53 %) 1262 (49 %)  
Age 10 years 1212 (36 %) 364 (47 %) 848 (33 %) <0.001 c
11 years 2124 (64 %) 409 (53 %) 1715 (67 %)  
Ethnicity White 2859 (86 %) 646 (84 %) 2213 (86 %) 0.22 c
Mixed 104 (3 %) 26 (3 %) 78 (3 %)  
South Asian 306 (9 %) 87 (11 %) 219 (9 %)  
Black 41 (1 %) 8 (1 %) 33 (1 %)  
Other 26 (1 %) 6 (1 %) 20 (1 %)  
Weight status Normal/underweight 2376 (74 %) 552 (74 %) 1824 (74 %) 0.97 d
Overweight 652 (20 %) 156 (21 %) 496 (20 %)  
Obese 197 (6 %) 43 (6 %) 154 (6 %)  
General health Good/excellent 3245 (97 %) 753 (98 %) 2492 (97 %) 0.64 c
Fair/poor 90 (3 %) 19 (2 %) 71 (3 %)  
Longstanding illness No 2864 (86 %) 662 (86 %) 2202 (86 %) 0.93 c
Yes 468 (14 %) 109 (14 %) 359 (14 %)  
Frequency of attending club or classes for sport or other exercise Not at all 844 (25 %) 189 (24 %) 655 (26 %) 0.23 d
At most once a week 770 (23 %) 168 (22 %) 602 (23 %)  
2–3 times a week 1187 (36 %) 286 (37 %) 901 (35 %)  
4–5 times a week 535 (16 %) 130 (17 %) 405 (16 %)  
Cycled to/from school age 7 No 3027 (99 %) 703 (99 %) 2324 (99 %) 0.52 c
Yes 36 (1 %) 10 (1 %) 26 (1 %)  
Highest education of either parenta Degree 516 (15 %) 106 (14 %) 410 (16 %) 0.50 d
Diploma 1234 (37 %) 320 (41 %) 914 (36 %)  
Higher secondary 499 (15 %) 114 (15 %) 385 (15 %)  
Middle secondary 685 (21 %) 140 (18 %) 545 (21 %)  
Low, other or none 397 (12 %) 93 (12 %) 304 (12 %)  
Equivalised household incomeb Fifth 1 (highest) 667 (20 %) 167 (22 %) 500 (20 %) 0.44 d
Fifth 2 749 (22 %) 182 (24 %) 567 (22 %)  
Fifth 3 714 (21 %) 149 (19 %) 565 (22 %)  
Fifth 4 638 (19 %) 128 (17 %) 510 (20 %)  
Fifth 5 (lowest) 568 (17 %) 147 (19 %) 421 (16 %)  
Highest occupational social class of either parent High managerial/professional 490 (15 %) 124 (16 %) 366 (14 %) 0.80 c
Low manager/professional 934 (28 %) 209 (27 %) 725 (29 %)  
Intermediate 453 (14 %) 101 (13 %) 352 (14 %)  
Small employers & self-employed 304 (9 %) 66 (9 %) 238 (9 %)  
Low supervisory & technical roles 126 (4 %) 25 (3 %) 101 (4 %)  
Semi-routine 291 (9 %) 69 (9 %) 222 (9 %)  
Routine 177 (5 %) 38 (5 %) 139 (5 %)  
Not economically active 529 (16 %) 130 (17 %) 399 (16 %)  
Settlement type Large urban area 2745 (82 %) 624 (81 %) 2121 (83 %) 0.28 c
Small town & fringe 263 (8 %) 63 (8 %) 200 (8 %)  
Village or smaller 323 (10 %) 86 (11 %) 237 (9 %)  
Prevalence of cycling to work in local area <2 % 1603 (48 %) 401 (52 %) 1202 (47 %) 0.01 d
2–3.9 % 1141 (34 %) 249 (32 %) 892 (35 %)  
4–5.9 % 354 (11 %) 83 (11 %) 271 (11 %)  
≥6 % 238 (7 %) 40 (5 %) 198 (8 %)  
  1. a Includes both academic and vocational qualifications. ‘Degree’ corresponds to British National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) level 1, ‘Diploma’ to NVQ2, ‘Higher secondary’ to NVQ3, ‘Middle Secondary’ to NVQ2 and ‘Low, other or none’ to NVQ1, overseas qualifications or no qualifications
  2. b Equivalised for household composition in terms of adults and children [35]
  3. c Chi-squared test for association
  4. d Chi-squared test for trend
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