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Table 2 Changes in primary and secondary outcomes for the intervention and control groups

From: Assessing the sustained impact of a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent boys: the ATLAS cluster randomized controlled trial

Outcomea Baseline, Mean (SE) n 8-month, Mean (SE) n Timeb p 18-month, Mean (SE) n Timec p Adjusted difference in change, Mean (95 % CI)d Group-by-timed p
Primary outcomes
 BMI, kg.m−2
  Intervention 20.8 (.6) 181 21.4 (.7) 139 <.001 22.3 (.7) 121 <.001 .07 (−.34, .38) .656
  Control 20.7 (.6) 180 21.3 (.6) 154 <.001 22.3 (.6) 143 <.001
 Waist circumference, cm
  Intervention 77.1 (1.9) 181 77.1 (1.9) 133 .898 78.8 (1.9) 118 <.001 .3 (−.7, 1.4) .549
  Control 77.0 (1.7) 180 76.5 (1.7) 147 .238 78.4 (1.7) 143 <.001
Secondary outcomes
 BMI z-score
  Intervention .64 (.20) 181 .66 (.20) 139 .584 .69 (.20) 121 .163 .04 (−.07, .14) .485
  Control .51 (.18) 180 .50 (.18) 154 .761 .53 (.18) 143 .635
 Counts/mine
  Intervention 538 (27) 133 542 (29) 68 .830 511 (31) 46 .160 10 (−42, 61) .715
  Control 492 (24) 132 498 (25) 89 .698 455 (26) 71 .027
 Percent MVPAe
  Intervention 8.7 (.5) 133 4.4 (.5) 68 <.001 8.5 (.5) 46 .677 .1 (−.8, 1.0) .805
  Control 7.9 (.4) 132 4.4 (.4) 89 <.001 7.7 (.4) 71 .377
 Screen-time, min/d
  Intervention 108.0 (14.6) 180 110.7 (15.0) 137 .722 128.5 (15.2) 120 .010 −32.2 (−53.6,−10.8) .003
  Control 130.6 (13.1) 177 163.1 (13.3) 152 <.001 183.3 (13.4) 145 <.001
 SSB intake, glasses/d
  Intervention 3.9 (.4) 179 3.1 (.3) 135 <.001 4.1 (.3) 120 .414 .2 (−.4, .7) .561
  Control 3.9 (.4) 174 3.8 (.3) 152 .492 3.9 (.3) 145 .946
 Grip strength, kg
  Intervention 22.5 (.97) 181 28.5 (.98) 133 <.001 32.7 (1.0) 120 <.001 .3 (−.7, 1.2) .580
  Control 20.4 (.87) 180 25.9 (.88) 148 <.001 30.2 (.9) 143 <.001
 Push-ups (repetitions)
  Intervention 9.1 (1.0) 177 9.8 (1.0) 135 .058 11.5 (1.0) 113 <.001 .5 (−.6, 1.6) .376
  Control 6.6 (.9) 179 6.5 (.9) 148 .866 8.6 (.9) 135 <.001
 RT skill competencyf
  Intervention 32.3 (.84) 166 40.6 (.87) 129 <.001 37.9 (.89) 107 <.001 5.9 (4.5, 7.3) <.001
  Control 30.6 (.76) 169 33.4 (.77) 145 <.001 30.4 (.78) 128 .654
 Intrinsic regulationg
  Intervention 6.01 (.26) 180 5.83 (.27) 135 .144 5.55 (.27) 119 <.001 .53 (.17, .88) .003
  Control 5.54 (.24) 177 5.28 (.24) 162 .024 4.55 (.24) 142 <.001
 Identified regulationg
  Intervention 5.94 (.24) 180 5.63 (.27) 135 <.001 5.40 (.27) 119 .016 .40 (.04, .76) .028
  Control 5.46 (.24) 177 5.12 (.24) 162 .005 4.52 (.25) 142 <.001
 Introjected regulationg
  Intervention 4.32 (.25) 180 4.19 (.26) 135 .267 4.54 (.27) 119 .190 .56 (.16, .97) .006
  Control 4.03 (.23) 177 3.77 (.23) 162 .047 3.67 (.24) 142 .009
 External regulationg
  Intervention 3.28 (.21) 180 3.51 (.24) 135 .137 4.22 (.24) 119 <.001 .49 (.05, .92) .028
  Control 3.29 (.21) 177 3.28 (.21) 162 .927 3.75 (.21) 142 .003
 Amotivationg
  Intervention 1.65 (.18) 180 2.04 (.19) 135 .006 2.83 (.19) 119 <.001 .13 (−.26, .52) .511
  Control 1.93 (.16) 177 2.04 (.17) 162 .384 2.97 (.17) 142 <.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index; MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; RT resistance training; SSB sugar-sweetened beverages
  2. aAll models were adjusted for school clustering and participant’s household socio-economic status
  3. bWithin-group effect from baseline to 8-months
  4. cWithin-group effect from baseline to 18-months
  5. dGroup-by-time effect from baseline to 18-months
  6. e265, 157 and 117 participants wore accelerometers for at least three weekdays at baseline, post-test and follow-up, respectively
  7. fPossible values range from 0 to 56
  8. gMotivation for school sport- possible values range from 1 to 7