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Table 1 Characteristics of study population

From: Longitudinal associations of lifestyle factors and weight status with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in preadolescent children: the large prospective cohort study IDEFICS

  Baseline survey T0 Follow-up survey T1
All Boys Girls All Boys Girls
N 3348 1743 1605 3348 1743 1605
Age (years) a 6.4 (± 1.7) 6.3 (± 1.7) 6.4 (± 1.6) 8.4 (± 1.7) 8.3 (± 1.7) 8.4 (± 1.6)
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg) a 23.9 (± 6.9) 24.0 (± 6.9) 23.9 (± 6.9) 30.6 (± 9.1) 30.7 (± 9.1) 30.6 (± 9.1)
 Height (cm) a 120.0 (± 12.0) 120.1 (± 12.0) 119.9 (± 12.0) 132.3 (± 11.3) 132.4 (± 11.2) 132.3 (± 11.4)
 BMI (kg/m2) a 16.3 (± 2.4) 16.3 (± 2.3) 16.3 (± 2.4) 17.2 (± 3.0) 17.1 (± 3.0) 17.2 (± 3.0)
 Waist circumference (cm) a 54.7 (± 6.7) 55.0 (± 6.8) 54.4 (± 6.6) 59.1 (± 8.4) 59.4 (± 8.5) 58.9 (± 8.3)
Biochemical markers
 Fasting glucose (mmol/l) a 4.6 (± 0.5) 4.7 (± 0.5) 4.6 (±0.5) 4.8 (± 0.5) 4.8 (± 0.5) 4.7 (± 0.5)
 Fasting insulin (pmol/l) b 25.2 (15.6, 38.4) 23.9 (14.4, 37.1) 26.7 (17.4, 39.7) 38.0 (26.1, 55.4) 35.1 (23.6, 50.6) 42.1 (28.7, 61.6)
 HOMA-IR b 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.7 (0.4, 1.1) 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 1.3 (0.8, 1.8)
Other variables
 Time spent with audio-visual media (h/day) b c 1.5 (1.0, 2.2) 1.6 (1.0, 2.2) 1.4 (1.0, 2.0) 1.9 (1.2, 2.5) 1.9 (1.2, 2.8) 1.8 (1.0, 2.4)
 Number of media in the child’s bedroom a c 0.8 (± 1.2) 0.9 (± 1.3) 0.7 (± 1.2) 1.0 (± 1.4) 1.1 (± 1.4) 1.0 (± 1.4)
 Fat consumption propensity score a c d 25.5 (± 9.3) 25.4 (± 9.4) 25.5 (± 9.2) not available not available not available
 Sugar consumption propensity score a c d 25.0 (± 11.3) 25.3 (± 11.5) 24.7 (± 11.2) not available not available not available
 Highest parental education (ISCED-level) a c 4.0 (± 1.2) 4.0 (± 1.2) 3.9 (± 1.2) 4.0 (± 1.2) 4.0 (± 1.2) 4.0 (± 1.2)
 N with data on sleep duration 1836 961 875 1450 763 687
 Sleep duration on weekdays 10.2 (± 0.9) 10.2 (± 1.0) 10.1 (± 0.9) 9.8 (± 1.0) 9.9 (± 1.0) 9.8 (± 1.0)
 N with accelerometer data 1967 1029 938 1793 920 873
 Time spent in MVPA (average minutes/day) a e 41.2 (± 21.2) 46.0 (± 22.8) 36.0 (± 18.0) 43.4 (± 22.6) 48.5 (± 24.6) 38.0 (± 19.0)
  1. aData are presented as mean (± standard deviation), b Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile),
  2. cVariables with missing data, descriptive statistics based on slightly smaller numbers of children (N ≥3055)
  3. dPropensity to consume items high in fat or sugar resp., relative to frequency of all items on food frequency questionnaire
  4. e MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity