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Table 3 Summary of risk of bias judgements for included outcomes

From: The effect of changing the built environment on physical activity: a quantitative review of the risk of bias in natural experiments

Author (date) Outcome Pre-intervention At-intervention Post-intervention Overall biasa
Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants into the study Bias in measurement of interventions Bias due to departures from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in selection of the reported result
Branas et al. [37] Self-report Serious Serious Moderate Serious Serious Serious Serious Critical
Cohen et al. [38] 1) Systematic observation Serious Serious Moderate Low Low Serious Serious Critical
2) Self-report Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious Serious Serious
Cohen et al. [39] Systematic observation Serious Serious Moderate Low Low Serious Serious Critical
Cohen et al. [40] 1) Systematic observation Serious Moderate Low Low Low Critical Serious Critical
2) Self-report Serious Moderate Low Low Moderate Critical Serious Critical
Fitzhugh et al. [41] Systematic observation Serious Serious Serious Low Low Serious Serious Critical
Gustat et al. [42] 1) Self-report Serious Moderate Low Moderate Low Serious Serious Serious
2) Systematic observation Serious Serious Low Low Low Serious Serious Critical
Krizek et al. [43] Self-report Critical Serious Serious Serious No information Serious Serious Critical
Merom et al. [44] Self-report Serious Critical Serious Moderate Moderate Critical Serious Critical
Parker et al. [45] Systematic observation Serious Serious Serious Low Low Serious Serious Critical
Tester and Baker [46] Systematic observation Serious Moderate Low Serious Moderate Serious Serious Critical
Veitch et al. [47] Systematic observation Serious Moderate Low Low Low Low Serious Serious
West and Shores [48] Self-report Serious Moderate Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Critical
  1. aIf an outcome is at a particular level of risk of bias for any of the seven domains (e.g. serious), then the overall risk of bias will be at least this severe (e.g., serious). If an outcome has moderate or serious risks of bias in four or more domains, then the outcome has an overall serious or critical risk of bias judgement respectively