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Table 3 Moderator analysis of intervention features for diet and physical activity

From: Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

   Effect size 95 % CI Effect size 95 % CI Subgroup analysis
Intervention Features k present (absent) Present Lower limit Upper limit Absent Lower limit Upper limit Q P Difference
Mode
 Supervised physical activity component 5 (8) −0.94 −1.323 −0.558 −0.368 −0.631 −0.106 5.852 0.016 −0.572
 Individual face to face 6 (7) −0.545 −0.885 −0.204 −0.576 −0.905 −0.247 0.017 0.897 0.031
 Group sessions only 5 (8) −0.856 −1.218 −0.495 −0.408 −0.643 −0.172 4.16 0.041 −0.448
 Combination of group and individual sessions 4 (9) −0.545 −1.013 −0.077 −0.588 −0.914 −0.263 0.022 0.881 0.043
 Individual contact only 4 (9) −0.349 −0.712 0.015 −0.661 −0.93 −0.393 1.841 0.175 0.312
Frequency
 Frequency of total contacts (median = 1.73)a 7 (6) −0.828 −1.083 −0.574 −0.17 −0.456 0.116 11.358 0.001 −0.658
 Frequency of total contacts (mean 2.61)a 10 (3) −0.705 −0.932 −0.479 −0.101 −0.469 0.268 7.501 0.006 −0.604
 Frequency of face to face contacts (median 1.96)a 6 (7) −0.934 −1.316 −0.552 −0.313 −0.627 0.001 6.061 0.014 −0.621
 Frequency of face to face contacts (mean 3.13)a 8 (5) −0.764 −1.089 −0.438 −0.322 −0.678 0.034 3.224 0.073 −0.442
Provider
 Contact with exercise physiologist, trainer 6 (7) −0.762 −1.124 −0.401 −0.398 −0.73 −0.066 2.12 0.145 −0.364
 Combination of dietitian and exercise physiologist 4 (9) −0.778 −1.222 −0.334 −0.466 −0.778 −0.155 1.272 0.259 −0.312
 Contact with dietitian/ nutritionist 10 (3) −0.488 −0.677 −0.219 −0.886 −1.316 −0.455 3.093 0.079 0.398
 Interventionist other than dietitian, exercise physiologist, i.e. nurse, doctor 4 (9) −0.477 −0.848 −0.046 −0.628 −0.928 −0.327 0.5 0.48 0.151
Intensity
 Intensity: number of face to face contacts (median (16)a 7 (6) −0.804 −1.144 −0.465 −0.32 −0.66 0.02 3.9 0.048 −0.484
 Intensity: number of face to face contacts (mean (20.2)a 4 (9) −0.784 −1.261 −0.307 −0.481 −0.79 −0.172 1.092 0.296 −0.303
 Intensity: number of total contacts with intervention personnel (median (25.5)a 7 (6) −0.609 −0.905 −0.314 −0.479 −0.842 −0.117 0.297 0.585 −0.13
 Intensity: number of total contacts with intervention personnel (mean (29.2) 5 (8) −0.75 −1.075 −0.426 −0.39 −0.684 −0.097 2.599 0.107 −0.36
Other
 Use of theory/model to inform intervention 3 (10) −0.483 −0.994 0.029 −0.567 −0.807 −0.327 0.086 0.769 0.084
 Baseline HbA1c levels >8%b 5 (8) −0.943 −1.397 −0.49 −0.441 −0.677 −0.205 3.707 0.054 −0.502
 Baseline HbA1c levels >7%b 12 (1) −0.608 −0.837 −0.379 −0.13 −0.754 0.494 1.983 0.159 −0.478
 Number of BCT's Median (11)c 6 (7) −0.469 −0.806 −0.131 −0.627 −0.932 −0.323 0.469 0.494 0.158
 Number of BCT's Mean (14.85)c 4 (9) −0.694 −1.209 −0.179 −0.53 −0.848 −0.212 0.283 0.595 −0.164
  1. Meta-analysis (random effects model was used to assess the data)
  2. aPresent denotes higher frequency/intensity, absent denotes lower frequency/intensity, above and below mean/median
  3. bPresent denotes high baseline HbA1c, absent denotes lower HbA1c, above and below mean/median
  4. cPresent denotes higher number of BCTs, absent denotes lower number of BCTs, above and below mean/median