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Table 2 Differences in mean scores between Child, Teen and Adult learners on various measures

From: Learning cooking skills at different ages: a cross-sectional study

  Reliability Range Overall Sample F (df) Significance Child (n = 198) Teen (n = 286) Adult (n = 381)
  α   M (SD)   P M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Cooking + Food Skills
Cooking Confidence 0.93 0–98 47.78 (29.32) 9.82 (2,862) 0.000 53.40b (27.30) 57.37a (31.64) 47.76b (25.44)
No. of CS 0–14 8.21 (4.49) 5.47 (2,862) 0.004 9.31a (3.98) 9.36a (4.55) 8.39b (4.05)
FS Confidence 0.94 0–133 45.82 (38.64) 16.47 (2,862) 0.000 46.50b (35.97) 61.26a (46.13) 44.81b (32.89)
No. of FS 0–19 7.83(6.01) 11.64 (2,862) 0.000 7.86b (5.34) 9.96a (6.75) 7.91b (5.52)
Cooking Practices
Time spent cooking midweek 0–240 45.48 (34.02) 21.50 (2,853) 0.000 61.99a (45.73) 46.38b (27.44) 42.87b (30.188)
Time spent cooking weekend 0–280 53.83 (36.52) 10.75 (2,862) 0.000 67.62a (44.56) 54.20b (31.28) 53.61b (35.91)
Food Safety 0.62 0–5 2.78 (1.54) 10.98 (2,862) 0.000 3.07a (1.40) 3.15a (1.50) 2.64b (1.52)
Food Waste 0.71 2–6 3.42 (1.00) 7.03 (2,862) 0.001 3.21a (0.96) 3.54b (0.82) 3.46b (1.06)
Cooking Attitudes
Cooking Creativity 0.78 6–30 18.69 (4.79) 35.28 (2,862) 0.000 20.66a (4.30) 20.21a (4.21) 17.90b (4.52)
Cooking Identity 0.88 7–35 24.45 (5.39) 18.43 (2,862) 0.000 26.19a (4.73) 26.12a (4.47) 24.20b (4.84)
Food Neophilia 0.74 3–15 10.47 (2.67) 13.51 (2,861) 0.000 10.60b (2.70) 11.40a (2.35) 10.42b (2.42)
Diet Quality
ECI 4–20 12.22 (2.95) 3.60 (2,862) 0.028 12.91a (2.99) 12.21b (2.71) 12.50ab (2.89)
DINE (Sat Fat) 8–92 35.54 (13.04) 0.87 (2,862) 0.432 35.99 (14.01) 34.46 (10.95) 35.03 (13.00)
DINE (fibre) 6–91 34.62 (11.25) 10.73 (2,862) 0.000 35.19ab (9.68) 33.41b (10.61) 37.35a (11.07)
Fried food 1–5 2.43 (0.78) 6.84 (2,862) 0.001 2.35ab (0.80) 2.29a (0.70) 2.49b (0.74)
Biscuits/Chocolate/Savoury Snacks 1–5 3.13 (1.07) 7.78 (2,862) 0.000 3.14b (1.03) 2.91a (1.04) 3.24b (1.10)
Consumption of Takeaway 1–6 2.55 (0.92) 4.75 (2,862) 0.009 2.27a (0.87) 2.49b (0.87) 2.48b (0.87)
Consumption of Takeaway style food 1–6 2.29 (0.97) 2.92 (2,862) 0.051 2.07a (0.88) 2.20ab (0.89) 2.26b (0.95)
Portions of Fruit per day 0–5 2.48 (0.97) 3.71 (2,838) 0.034 2.69a (1.04) 2.59ab (0.87) 2.47b (0.94)
Portions of Veg per day 0–5 1.88 (1.00) 0.60 (2,862) 0.547 1.98 (1.02) 2.01 (0.97) 1.93 (1.00)
Health + Wellbeing Indicators
BMI 13.03–46.42 24.45 (4.20) 1.62 (2,617) 0.254 24.06 (4.66) 24.62 (3.95) 24.80 (3.69)
GHI 2–10 6.85 (1.62) 3.92 (2,862) 0.020 7.27a (1.52) 6.90b (1.46) 6.97ab (1.52)
  1. M mean, SD Standard Deviation, CS Cooking skills, FS Food skills, ECI Eating Choice Index, DINE Dietary Index for Nutrition Education, Sat Saturated, BMI Body Mass Index, GHI General Health Interest
  2. Superscript letters depict where significant differences (P < 0.05) fall between the groups