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Table 2 Summary of intervention effects on behaviour outcomes and related health outcomes

From: Efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review

  Behaviour outcomes Related health outcomes
Study Diet Physical activity Sedentary behaviour Weight status Fitness Blood pressure Glucose Cholesterol Quality of life
Children
 Direito et al. 2015 [47]   0 0   0     
 Garde et al. 2015 [37]   + (w)        
 Nollen et al. 2014 [40] 0   0 0      
 Smith et al. 2014 [29], Lubans et al. 2016 [30] + (b) 0 + (b) 0 + (b)     
Adults
 Choi et al. 2016 [44]   0        
 Cowdery et al. 2015 [35]   0   0   0    
 Elbert et al. 2016 [57] + (b)         
 Fukuoka et al. 2010 [36]   + (w)        
 Gasser et al. 2006 [52] 0 0   0      
 Gilliland et al. 2015 [38] + (w)         
 Gilson et al. 2016 [51] 0 0        
 Glynn et al. 2014 [53]   + (b)   0   0    0
 Hebden et al. 2014 [48] 0 + (b) 0 0      
 King et al. 2013 [39]   + (w) + (w)       
 Kirwan et al. 2012 [49]   + (b)        
 Maher et al. 2015 [50]   + (b)        0
 Mummah et al. 2016 [45] + (b)         
 Partridge et al. 2015 [31], Allman-Farinelli et al. 2016 [32] + (b) + (b)   + (b)      
 Rabbi et al. 2015 [46] 0 0        
 Rospo et al. 2016 [56]   - (b)    + (w) + (w)    
 Safran Naimark et al. 2015 [58] + (b) + (b)   + (b)      
 Silveira et al. 2013 [33], Van Het Reve et al. 2014 [34]   + (b)        
 Stuckey et al. 2011 [41]   + (w)   + (w)   + (w) 0 + (w)  
 Van Drongelen et al. 2014 [54] + (b) + (b)        
 Wharton et al. 2014 [42] 0    + (w)      
 Walsh et al. 2016 [55]   + (b)        
 Wang et al. 2015 [43]   + (w)        
  1. + (b): between-group significant improvements in favour of app intervention group, − (b): between-group significant improvements in favour of non-app control group, + (w): within-group significant improvement, 0: no significant change