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Table 3 Outcome measures, impact and intervention development and duration

From: Do physical activity interventions in Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand improve activity levels and health outcomes? A systematic review

  Objective outcome measures Subjective outcome measures Metabolic measures Data collection points, duration of intervention Cultural consultation and adaption
Biddle et al. [48] Vo2 peak**↑, leg strength (maximal quadriceps at 60deg/second)*↑ PAR-Q Fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile (HDL)*↑, blood pressure and C-reactive protein Baseline, 4 weeks, IP Community consultations
Canuto et al. [49] Height, weight*↓, BMI*↓, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure, Step count [data not shown] Sallis seven-day physical activity recall survey (1985),
Quality of life (SF36)
Fasting venous samples of glucose and serum insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride concentration. HbA1c and c-reactive protein Baseline, 12 weeks, IP, 12WP, Community consultations
Chan et al. [43] Weight, Waist*↓ and hip circumference, Blood pressure*↓, Step count   Plasma glucose (fasting), HbA1c*↓, Lipid profile*↓ (LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides*↓, Homocysteine, C-peptide, Serum creatinine, Microalbuminuria, Insulin resistance, Triglyceride, Homocysteine levels Baseline, 6 months Community consultations
Coppell et al. [50] Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure*↓, BMI Medical history, self-reported physical activity*↑ and dietary behaviours**↑↓ (New Zealand Health Survey, 1999). 75g fasted oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)*↑, Fasting insulin, fasting lipids ↓*and urate*↓ and a mid-stream urine sample*↑. Baseline, ongoing, two years post intervention Community consultations
Davey et al. [40] Age, gender, health conditions, Weight*↓, BMI*↓, waist circumference *↓, 6 minute walk test (6MWT)*↑, Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT)*↑, Timed Up and Go (TUG)*↓ Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), Quality of life (SF36)*↑   Baseline, 8 weeks, IP Community consultations
Dimer et al. [51] Weight, BMI*↓, 6 minute walk test (6MWT)**↑, Blood pressure*↓, Waist girth**↓    Baseline, 8 weeks, IP Community consultation
Egger et al. [42] Weight**↓, Waist & hip circumference (cm)**↓, BMI**↓, hip circumference **↓, Waist to hip ratio, Body fat through bio-impedance analysis**↓., fat mass (kg)**↓    1 year follow up Community consultation
Gracey et al. [52] † Weight, BMI, Blood pressure   HbA1c, glucose, cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL), triglycerides Not specified Community consultation
McAuley et al. [36] Weight**↓, height, waist and hip circumference**↓, blood pressure*↓, BMI**↓, Body composition (fat free mass)*↓, and submaximal exercise test (one mile walk test)**↑ 4 day diet record pre and post intervention and a daily diet record. *↓
Physical activity levels: Based on the Life in New Zealand (LINZ)
fasting insulin, glucose**↓, and lipids, insulin sensitivity**↓ Baseline, 4 months, IP Community consultation
Mendham et al. [41] Body mass*↓, blood pressure, waist circumference*↓ (WC) and hip circumference, BMI*↓
A graded exercise test (GXT)*↑ to determine peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) and maximal aerobic workload (Wmax)
PAR-Q Leptin (pg mL−1)**↓, Glucose regulation: Fasting glucose test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), Inflammatory markers: C-reactive proteins and inflammatory cytokines.
Matsuda ISI (μlUmL−1, mg mL−1)*↑, HOMA-IR (μlUmL−1, mg mL−1)*↑
Baseline, 12 weeks, IP Community consultation
O’Dea [39] Weight, BMI Physical activity levels on a scale of 1–5. Oral glucose tolerance test*↓, fasting plasma insulin *↓Plasma triglycerides*↓ , plasma cholesterol
Fasting plasma glucose*↓
Baseline, 7 weeks, IP Unsure
Rowley et al. [35]♦ Body weight, BMI**↓ Diet and physical activity questionnaires [not specified] 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)**↓, Fasting plasma triglyceride*↓ and insulin concentrations*↑
Fasting plasma glucose *↓
Baseline, 6M, 12M, 18M, 24M, 48M Community consultation
Sukala et al. [53] Weight, BMI, Blood pressure SF36 (Quality of Life)*↑   Baseline, 16 weeks, IP Community consultation
  1. IP immediate post intervention, * Significant change (p<0.05), ** Significant change (p<0.01), ↓Value decreased, ↑Value increased, † Not enough information provided to determine significant differences, ♦Significance level was set at p<0.1