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Table 2 Intervention characteristics and salt intake or behaviour assessment

From: Review of behaviour change interventions to reduce population salt intake

Study Intervention delivery mode Salt Specific Theoretical framework/model Outcome (method of assessment)
Salt intake(urine) Salt intake(dietary survey) Salt-related behaviours (Q)
Health education
 Ferrara et al. (2012) [36]a Clinic group lectures N N   (FFQ)  
 Cotter et al. (2013) [31]a School lectures and workshop Y N = (24 h)   
 Veroff et al. (2012) [23]a Self-led using materials N N    =
 Cappuccio et al. (2006) [33]a Community lectures Y N = (24 h)   
 Lin et al. (2013) [24], Svetkey (2009) [56]a Clinic group lectures N Y = (24 h) (FFQ)  
 Chen et al. (2008) [15] Workplace lectures N N   (Q)  
 Kitaoka et al. (2013) [28] Community lectures N N = (spot) (FFQ)
 Ireland et al. (2010) [26]a Community workshop Y N
(24 h)

(24 recall)
 
 Lu et al. (2015) [17]a Community lecture and workshop N N  
(salt weigh)
 
 Resnick et al. (2014) [25] Community lectures N Y   (FFQ)  
 White et al. (2013) [27] Community lectures N Y   (Q)  
 Bogle (2008) Community workshop Y N   
 Chen et al. (2013) [16]a Community workshop Y N = (24 h)
(salt weigh)
 Fujii et al. (2009) [29] Computer program N Y   
Public awareness campaigns
 Papadakis et al. (2010) [32]a Mass media (province) Y Y   
 Wyness et al. (2012) [20], Millett et al. (2012) [38], He (2014) [54] Mass media (national) Y N   
 Safefood, Amarach (2006) Mass media (national) Y N   
 Martins et al. (2009) [30] Mass media (national) Y N   
Multi-component education
 Zhang et al. (2014) [18] Campaign and community lectures N N   
 Khosravi et al. (2012) [24]a Mass media and community lectures N N (24 h)   
 Drummond (2008) Campaign and community lecture Y N   
 Surpluss (2008) Campaign and workplace lecture Y N   
  1. ahigher quality studies with more low-risk domains than high-risk domains out of 7; N- No; Y- Yes; - significant effect; = − no significant effect; 24 h - 24 h urine collection; FFQ - food frequency question; Q - questionnaire; 24 recall - 24 h dietary recall; spot - spot urine samples