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Table 3 Summary table of associations of neighbourhood physical environmental correlates of active travel in older adults

From: The neighbourhood physical environment and active travel in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Environmental attributes Total walking Within-neighbourhood walking Walking + cycling Cycling All active travel
  P N pa Da P N pa Da P N pa Da P N pa Da P N pa Da
Residential density/urbanisation 7 6 0 <.001 P 1 3 0 .319 1 1 0 .089 0 0 1 .050 N 9 10 1 .002 P
Walkability 8 1 0 <.001 P - - - - - 1 0 0 .050 P 0 1 0 1.00 9 2 0 <.001 P
Street connectivity 5 10 0 .014 P 2 2 0 .046 P 0 1 0 1.00 - - - - - 7 13 0 .002 P
Access to/availability of services/destinations
Overall access to destinations/services 6.5 7.5 0 <.001 P 4 0 0 <.001 P 0 1 0 1.00 0 1 0 1.00 10.5 9.5 0 <.001 P
Land use mix – destination diversity 10.5 6.5 0 <.001 P 2.66 1.34 0 .003 P 1 1 0 .310 - - - - - 14.16 8.84 0 <.001 P
Shops/commercial 5.33 3.67 0 <.001 P 0.8 1.2 0 .156 1 0 0 .050 P 1 0 0 .050 P 8.13 4.87 0 <.001 P
Food outlets 1 5 0 .542 1.8 2.2 0 .050 P 1 0 0 .050 P - - - - - 3.8 7.2 0 .027 P
Business/government/institutional/industrial 4 5 1 .112 0 2 0 1.00 2 0 0 .006 P - - - - - 6 7 1 .018 P
Health and aged-care 2 3 1 .451 1 1 0 .166 - - - - - - - - - - 3 4 1 .166
Religious 0 2 0 1.00 1 1 0 .166 - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 0 .327
Public transport 8.2 1.8 0 <.001 P 0 5 0 1.00 0 1 0 1.00 1 0 0 .050 P 9.2 7.8 0 <.001 P
Parks/open space/recreation 6.93 10.07 0 .001 P 2.8 1.2 0 .002 P 1 3 0 .287 - - - - - 10.73 14.27 0 <.001 P
Entertainment 0 5 0 1.00 0.8 1.2 0 .191 0 1 0 1.00 - - - - - 0.8 7.2 0 .553
Other 0 2.14 0.86 .310 - - - - - 0 1 0 1.00 - - - - - 0 3.14 0.86 .390
Pedestrian & cycling infrastructure
Pedestrian-friendly features 6.76 18.24 1 .024 P 5.22 6.78 0 .003 P 1.45 2.55 0 .194 - - - - - 13.43 27.57 1 <.001 P
Barriers to walking/cycling 1 10 0 .535 1 3 2 .397 0 2 1 .295 - - - - - 2 15 3 .664
Benches/sitting facilities 2 2 0 .048 P 2.33 2.67 0 .033 P - - - - - 0.18 0.82 0 .674 4.51 5.49 0 .004 P
Street lights 1 3 0 .290 1 0 0 .050 P 1 0 0 .050 P 0.22 0.78 0 .595 3.22 3.78 0 .013 P
Easy access to building entrance 2.56 0.44 0 .002 P 2.49 1.51 0 .010 P - - - - - - - - - - 5.05 1.95 0 <.001 P
Public toilets 0 2 0 1.00 0 1 0 1.00 - - - - - 0 1 0 1.00 0 4 0 1.00
Aesthetics and cleanliness/order
Greenery and aesthetically pleasing scenery 3.01 11.99 0 .189 0.84 2.16 0 .239 0 5 0 1.00 0 1 0 1.00 3.85 20.15 0 .160
Littering/vandalism/decay 0.72 2.28 3 .050 N 0 3 0 1.00 1 0 1 .802 0.07 0.93 0 .883 1.79 6.21 4 .191
Pollution (air, noise) 1 2 0 .293 - - - - - 0 2 0 1.00 0.07 0.84 0.09 .963 1.07 4.84 0.09 .457
Safety and traffic
Traffic/pedestrian safety 3 19.49 1.51 .484 0 8.78 2.22 .189 3 2 1 .056 0 1 1 .166 6 31.27 5.73 .888
Human or motorised traffic volume 2 1 0 .024 P 2 2 0 .054 - - - - - - - - - - 4 3 0 .004 P
Crime/personal safety 2 15.86 3.14 .667 3 4 3 1.00 0 3 0 1.00 - - - - - 5 22.86 6.14 .755
  1. Notes. P = positive association;  = nil association; N = negative association; p = p value; D = direction of associations supported by the data; subscript ‘a’ = fully adjusted (for sample size and study quality). In bold: statistically significant evidence of associations when 5+ findings reported on specific combinations of environment – active travel variables)