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Table 4 Summary table of associations of neighbourhood physical environmental correlates with active travel in older adults by type of environmental measure (objective vs. perceived)

From: The neighbourhood physical environment and active travel in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Environmental attributes Total walking All active travel
  P N pa Da P N pa Da
Residential density/urbanisation 7 6 0 <.001 P 9 10 1 .002 P
 Objective 2 1 0 .031 P 3 1 1 .145
 Perceived 5 5 0 .004 P 6 9 0 .006 P
Street connectivity 5 10 0 .014 P 7 13 0 .002 P
 Objective 2 2 0 .041 P 2 2 0 .041 P
 Perceived 3 8 0 .113 5 11 0 .014 P
Access to/availability of services/destinations
 Land use mix – destination diversity 10.5 6.5 0 <.001 P 14.16 8.84 0 <.001 P
  Objective 2.5 3.5 0 .051 2.5 3.5 0 .051
  Perceived 8 3 0 <.001 P 11.66 5.34 0 <.001 P
 Public transport 8.2 1.8 0 <.001 P 9.2 7.8 0 <.001 P
  Objective 4.2 0.8 0 <.001 P 4.2 2.8 0 .002 P
  Perceived 4 1 0 <.001 P 5 5 0 .002 P
 Parks/open space/recreation 6.93 10.07 0 .001 P 10.73 14.27 0 <.001 P
  Objective 2 8 0 .229 2.8 11.2 0 .130
  Perceived 4.93 2.07 0 <.001 P 7.93 3.07 0 <.001 P
Pedestrian & cycling infrastructure
Pedestrian-friendly features 6.76 18.24 1 .024 P 13.43 27.57 1 <.001 P
 Objective 2.25 5.75 0 .090 3.25 7.75 0 .044 P
 Perceived 4.51 12.49 1 .114 10.18 19.82 0 <.001 P
Aesthetics and cleanliness/order
 Greenery and aesthetically pleasing scenery 3.01 11.99 0 .189 3.85 20.15 0 .160
  Objective 0.5 2.50 0 .569 0.5 5.50 0 .723
  Perceived 2.51 9.49 0 .237 3.35 14.65 0 .154
Safety and traffic
 Traffic/pedestrian safety 3 19.49 1.51 .484 6 31.27 5.73 .888
  Objective 1 3 1 1.00 4 4 1 .043 P
  Perceived 2 16.49 0.51 .432 2 27.27 4.73 .398
  1. Notes. P = positive association;  = nil association; N = negative association; p = p value; D = direction of associations supported by the data; subscript ‘a’ = fully adjusted (for sample size and study quality). Differences in associations between objective and perceived measures of environmental attributes are bolded