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Table 2 The associations between adherence to lifestyle behavior recommendations and meeting expectations on a standardized exam in Mathematics

From: The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada

  Academic Achievement in Mathematics
Univariable Model 1* Model 2**
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Vegetables and Fruits
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.13 (0.95, 1.35) 0.18 1.06 (0.90, 1.27) 0.48 1.04 (0.86, 1.27) 0.66
Grain Products
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.02 (0.86, 1.22) 0.81 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 0.99 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 0.92
Milk and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.34 (1.15, 1.57) <0.001 1.27 (1.09, 1.49) 0.002 1.33 (1.11, 1.59) 0.002
Meat and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.56 (1.27, 1.90) <0.001 1.56 (1.28, 1.91) <0.001 1.59 (1.27, 1.99) <0.001
Saturated Fat
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 0.97 (0.82, 1.14) 0.71 0.94 (0.79, 1.12) 0.49 1.00 (0.83, 1.21) 0.99
Free Sugars <10% total kcal
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.63 (1.38, 1.93) <0.001 1.33 (1.12, 1.57) 0.001 1.20 (0.99, 1.45) 0.06
PAQ-C       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.14 (0.96, 1.35) 0.12 1.10 (0.92, 1.30) 0.30 1.12 (0.94, 1.33) 0.21
Sleep       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.44 (1.01, 2.02) 0.04 1.26 (0.88, 1.80) 0.20 1.42 (0.97, 2.07) 0.71
Screen (TV)       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.33 (1.11, 1.60) 0.002 1.11 (0.92, 1.35) 0.28 1.02 (0.83, 1.25) 0.86
Body Weight Status  
 Normal Weight (reference) - - - - - -
 Overweight or Obese 0.95 (0.79, 1.13) 0.533 1.00 (0.84, 1.20) 0.97 0.98 (0.82, 1.17) 0.81
Gender
 Girl (reference) - - - - - -
 Boy 1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 0.27 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 0.22 1.11 (0.94, 1.30) 0.22
Parental Education
 Secondary or Less (ref) - - - - - -
 College Diploma 1.50 (1.20, 1.86) <0.001 1.32 (1.07, 1.63) 0.01 1.32 (1.06, 1.65) 0.01
 University or Graduate Degree 3.28 (2.65, 4.06) <0.001 2.38 (1.91, 2.97) <0.001 2.45 (1.96, 3.07) <0.001
Household Income (CAN$)
 <=20,000 (reference) - - - - - -
 20,001–40,000 1.61 (1.30, 2.01) <0.001 1.43 (1.15, 1.79) 0.002 1.42 (1.13, 1.79) 0.003
 40,001–60,000 2.03 (1.63, 2.53) <0.001 1.49 (1.21, 1.85) <0.001 1.44 (1.15, 1.80) 0.001
 >=60,001 3.43 (2.71, 4.35) <0.001 2.05 (1.58, 2.65) <0.001 2.03 (1.56, 2.63) <0.001
Region of Residence       
 Rural (reference) - - - - - -
 Urban 0.82 (0.66, 1.04) 0.10 0.70 (0.59, 0.84) <0.001 0.72 (0.58, 0.89) 0.002
  1. *Model 1 adjusted for gender, parental education, household income, and region of residence. Results for Model 1 for confounders are the result of a model using only confounders as predictors
  2. **Model 2 adjusted for above, weight status and all lifestyle behaviors
  3. Results in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)