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Table 3 The associations between adherence to lifestyle behavior recommendations and meeting expectations on a standardized exam in Reading

From: The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada

  Academic Achievement in Reading
Univariable Model 1* Model 2**
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Meets Vegetables and Fruits
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.44 (1.13, 1.83) 0.003 1.30 (1.02, 1.66) 0.03 1.19 (0.91, 1.56) 0.20
Meets Grain Products
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.49 (1.13, 1.97) 0.005 1.49 (1.12, 1.98) 0.006 1.57 (1.16, 2.14) 0.004
Meets Milk and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.25 (1.02, 1.53) 0.03 1.24 (1.00, 1.53) 0.045 1.46 (1.16, 1.84) 0.001
Meets Meat and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.55 (1.20, 2.01) 0.001 1.55 (1.19, 2.01) 0.001 1.56 (1.18, 2.08) 0.04
Meets Saturated Fat
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.36 (1.13, 1.65) 0.001 1.28 (1.06, 1.56) 0.01 1.28 (1.01, 1.62) 0.04
Meets Free Sugars <10% total kcal
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.91 (1.57, 2.32) <0.001 1.56 (1.28, 1.90) <0.001 1.29 (1.02, 1.62) 0.03
Meets PAQ-C       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.14 (0.90, 1.45) 0.28 1.05 (0.82, 1.34) 0.70 1.05 (0.82, 1.36) 0.66
Meets Sleep       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.33 (0.89, 2.00) 0.16 1.21 (0.79, 1.88) 0.38 1.39 (0.90, 2.13) 0.14
Meets Screen Time       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.17 (0.94, 1.46) 0.16 1.03 (0.82, 1.31) 0.77 0.96 (0.75, 1.23) 0.74
Body Weight Status  
 Normal Weight (reference) - - - - - -
 Overweight or Obese 1.01 (0.81, 1.26) 0.92 1.09 (0.86, 1.37) 0.48 1.03 (0.82, 1.31) 0.79
Gender
 Girl (reference) - - - - - -
 Boy 0.56 (0.46, 0.67) <0.001 0.57 (0.46, 0.69) <0.001 0.57 (0.47, 0.70) <0.001
Parental Education
 Secondary or Less (ref) - - - - - -
 College Diploma 1.42 (1.09, 1.84) 0.008 1.33 (1.02, 1.73) 0.04 1.24 (0.93, 1.66) 0.14
 University or Graduate Degree 2.56 (1.92, 3.41) <0.001 1.89 (1.40, 2.55) <0.001 1.89 (1.37, 2.60) <0.001
Household Income (CAN$)
 <=20,000 (reference) - - - - - -
 20,001–40,000 1.31 (0.97, 1.77) 0.78 1.20 (0.90, 1.62) 0.22 1.23 (0.89, 1.70) 0.21
 40,001–60,000 1.68 (1.20, 2.34) 0.002 1.32 (0.95, 1.84) 0.10 1.33 (0.94, 1.88) 0.11
 >=60,001 3.10 (2.13, 4.51) <0.001 1.95 (1.33, 2.87) 0.001 2.06 (1.37, 3.08) <0.001
Region of Residence       
 Rural (reference) - - - - - -
 Urban 1.23 (0.96, 1.57) 0.11 1.03 (0.84, 1.25) 0.81 1.11 (0.87, 1.41) 0.41
  1. *Model 1 adjusted for gender, parental education, household income, and region of residence. Results for Model 1 for confounders are the result of a model using only confounders as predictors
  2. **Model 2 adjusted for above, weight status and all lifestyle behaviors
  3. Results in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)