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Table 4 The associations between adherence to lifestyle behavior recommendations and meeting expectations on a standardized exam in Writing

From: The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada

  Academic Achievement in Writing
Univariable Model 1* Model 2**
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Meets Vegetables and Fruits
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.35 (1.06, 1.71) 0.02 1.20 (0.93, 1.54) 0.16 1.08 (0.81, 1.43) 0.61
Meets Grain Products
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.05 (0.79, 1.40) 0.72 1.09 (0.82, 1.44) 0.57 1.00 (0.74, 1.37) 0.96
Meets Milk and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.15 (0.91, 1.45) 0.25 1.08 (0.85, 1.37) 0.54 1.10 (0.85, 1.43) 0.46
Meets Meat and Alternatives
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.46 (1.08, 1.99) 0.01 1.40 (1.04, 1.90) 0.03 1.39 (1.01, 1.91) 0.04
Meets Saturated Fat
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.23 (0.99, 1.52) 0.06 1.18 (0.95, 1.48) 0.141 1.16 (0.90, 1.49) 0.25
Meets Free Sugars <10% total kcal
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.66 (1.35, 2.04) <0.001 1.43 (1.16, 1.77) 0.001 1.41 (1.13, 1.49) 0.002
Meets PAQ-C       
 No (reference) -   - - - -
 Yes 1.32 (1.05, 1.66) 0.02 1.19 (0.94, 1.49) 0.14 1.12 (0.88, 1.43) 0.36
Meets Sleep       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.50 (1.05, 2.14) 0.03 1.56 (1.05, 2.29) 0.03 1.56 (1.03, 2.34) 0.03
Meets Screen Time       
 No (reference) - - - - - -
 Yes 1.47 (1.16, 1.88) 0.002 1.43 (1.12, 1.83) 0.004 1.35 (1.04, 1.75) 0.03
Body Weight Status  
 Normal Weight (reference) - - - - - -
 Overweight or Obese 0.80 (0.63, 1.03) 0.08 0. 84 (0.65, 1.08) 0.17 0.82 (0.64, 1.06) 0.14
Gender
 Girl (reference) - - - - - -
 Boy 0.44 (0.36, 0.55) <0.001 0.42 (0.34, 0.52) <0.001 0.45 (0.36, 0.56) <0.001
Parental Education
 Secondary or Less (ref) - - - - - -
 College Diploma 1.20 (0.89, 1.63) 0.24 1.33 (1.07, 1.65) 0.01 1.16 (0.84, 1.61) 0.36
 University or Graduate Degree 1.82 (1.34, 2.46) <0.001 2.42 (1.94, 3.03) <0.001 1.37 (0.96, 1.94) 0.08
Household Income (CAN$)
 <=20,000 (reference) - - - - - -
 20,001–40,000 1.50 (1.07, 2.11) 0.02 1.46 (1.17, 1.83) 0.01 1.44 (1.01, 2.06) 0.045
 40,001–60,000 1.65 (1.18, 2.30) 0.003 1.53 (1.23, 1.90) <0.001 1.51 (1.03, 2.21) 0.04
 >=60,001 2.66 (1.80, 3.93) <0.001 2.42 (1.94, 3.03) <0.001 2.10 (1.31, 3.36) 0.002
Region of Residence       
 Rural (reference) - - - - - -
 Urban 0.97 (0.74, 1.26) 0.80 0.70 (0.57, 0.85) <0.001 0.86 (0.65. 1.12) 0.264
  1. *Model 1 adjusted for gender, parental education, household income, and region of residence. Results for Model 1 for confounders are the result of a model using only confounders as predictors
  2. **Model 2 adjusted for above, weight status and all lifestyle behaviors
  3. Results in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)