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Table 5 Associations of objectively-assessed environmental attributes with accelerometry-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (min/h) by significant moderators

From: Do associations between objectively-assessed physical activity and neighbourhood environment attributes vary by time of the day and day of the week? IPEN adult study

    Time of the day
Environmental attribute Day of the week Gender 8:00 am – 8:59 am 9:00 am – 11:59 am 12:00 pm – 1:59 pm 2:00 pm – 4:59 pm 5:00 pm – 7:59 pm 8:00 pm – 11:59 pm
    eb (95% CI) p-values eb (95% CI) p-values eb (95% CI) p-values eb (95% CI) p-values eb (95% CI) p-values eb (95% CI) p-values
Net residential density – 1 km bf (1000/km2) All Men 1.007 c (1.004, 1.011) <0.001 1.006 c (1.003, 1.008) <0.001 1.002 a (1.000, 1.005) 0.033 1.004 c (1.002, 1.006) <0.001 1.007 c (1.004, 1.009) <0.001 1.007 c (1.005, 1.010) <0.001
All Women 1.003 (1.000, 1.006) 0.093 1.003 b (1.001, 1.005) 0.008 1.003 a (1.001, 1.006) 0.016 1.005 c (1.003, 1.008) <0.001 1.007 c (1.004, 1.009) <0.001 1.005 c (1.002, 1.007) <0.001
Weekday All 1.006 c (1.004, 1.009) <0.001 1.005 c (1.003, 1.007) <0.001 1.002 a (1.000, 1.005) 0.032 1.004 c (1.002, 1.006) <0.001 1.006 c (1.004, 1.008) <0.001 1.006 c (1.004, 1.008) <0.001
Weekend All 1.002 (0.998, 1.006) 0.272 1.003 a (1.000, 1.005) 0.021 1.003 a (1.000, 1.006) 0.024 1.005 c (1.002, 1.007) <0.001 1.007 c (1.005, 1.010) <0.001 1.005 c (1.003, 1.008) <0.001
Net residential density – 0.5 km bf (1000/km2) All Men 1.003 (0.999, 1.007) 0.152 1.003 b (1.001, 1.005) 0.007 1.001 (0.999, 1.003) 0.289 1.004 b (1.001, 1.006) 0.006 1.006 c (1.003, 1.008) <0.001 1.005 c (1.003, 1.008) <0.001
All Women 0.998 (0.994, 1.001) 0.171 1.001 (0.999, 1.003) 0.321 1.002 (0.999, 1.004) 0.205 1.004 b (1.001, 1.007) 0.003 1.006 c (1.004, 1.008) <0.001 1.003 b (1.001, 1.005) <0.001
Weekday All 1.005 c (1.003, 1.007) <0.001 1.004 c (1.002, 1.006) <0.001 1.001 (1.000, 1.003) 0.139 1.003 c (1.001, 1.005) <0.001 1.005 c (1.003, 1.006) <0.001 1.005 c (1.003, 1.007) <0.001
Weekend All 1.001 (0.997, 1.004) 0.772 1.002 (1.000, 1.003) 0.115 1.002 (0.999, 1.004) 0.217 1.004 c (1.002, 1.006) <0.001 1.006 c (1.004, 1.008) <0.001 1.004 c (1.002, 1.006) <0.001
Intersection density – 1 km bf (100/km2) Weekday All 1.760 c (1.498, 2.068) <0.001 1.461 c (1.257, 1.699) <0.001 1.225 b (1.055, 1.423) 0.008 1.180 a (1.016, 1.370) 0.030 1.314 c (1.131, 1.526) <0.001 1.440 c (1.240, 1.672) <0.001
Weekend All 1.352 a (1.027, 1. 781) 0.032 1.231 a (1.005, 1.508) 0.044 1.285 a (1.053, 1.569) 0.014 1.297 b (1.064, 1.580) 0.010 1.779 c (1.460, 2.168) <0.001 1.952 c (1.601, 2.379) <0.001
Intersection density – 0.5 km bf (100/km2) Weekday All 1.153 c (1.097, 1.213) <0.001 1.109 c (1.072, 1.148) <0.001 1.049 b (1.014, 1.086) 0.007 1.038 a (1.006, 1.073) 0.028 1.055 b (1.020, 1.091) 0.002 1.092 c (1.055, 1.131) <0.001
Weekend All 1.274 a (1.022, 1.589) 0.031 1.085 (0.920, 1.279) 0.334 1.078 (0.917, 1.268) 0.365 1.105 (0.941, 1.298) 0.222 1.430 c (1.218, 1.680) <0.001 1.605 c (1.367, 1.886) <0.001
Land use mix (3 land uses) – 1 km bf All Men 2.101 c (1.367, 3.228) <0.001 1.100 (0.770, 1.573) 0.600 1.142 (0.803. 1.623) 0.460 1.311 (0.923, 1.861) 0.130 2.060 c (1.450, 2.924) <0.001 1.484 a (1.044, 2.108) 0.028
All Women 0.841 (0.585, 1.209) 0.350 0.950 (0.706, 1.279) 0.736 1.024 (0.763, 1.374) 0.875 1.329 (0.991, 1.782) 0.057 1.971 c (1.470, 2.642) <0.001 1.059 (0.790, 1.421) 0.700
Land use mix (3 land uses) – 0.5 km bf Weekday All 1.583 c (1.214, 2.063) <0.001 1.082 (0.845, 1.385) 0.531 0.828 (0.647, 1.059) 0.132 1.091 (0.853, 1.394) 0.489 1.713 c (1.340, 2.190) <0.001 1.425 b (1.115, 1.822) 0.005
Weekend All 0.737 (0.450, 1.204) 0.223 0.939 (0.673, 1.309) 0.709 1.111 (0.803, 1.537) 0.527 1.272 (0.921, 1.757) 0.144 2.235 c (1.619, 3.086) <0.001 1.392 a (1.007, 1.924) 0.045
Ratio retail and civic land area to total bf area – 1 km bf Weekday All No interaction by Time of the Day 1.237 c (1.073, 1.426) <0.001
Weekend All 0.630 c (0.557, 0.733) <0.001 1.061 (0.707, 1.594) 0.774 0.874 (0.586, 1.303) 0.507 1.551 a (1.042, 2.310) 0.031 1.283 (0.862, 1.910) 0.219 0.787 (0.525, 1.180) 0.246
Ratio retail and civic land area to total bf area – 0.5 km bf All All No interaction by Time of the Day 0.982 a (0.967, 0.998) 0.028
Public transport density – 1 km bf (10/km2) Weekday All 1.369 c (1.287, 1.470) <0.001 1.157 c (1.092, 1.226) <0.001 1.088 b (1.027, 1.152) 0.004 1.093 b (1.032, 1.158) 0.002 1.105 c (1.043, 1.170) <0.001 1.088 b (1.027, 1.152) 0.004
Weekend All No interaction by Time of the Day 1.087 c (1.047, 1.127) <0.001
Public transport density – 0.5 km bf (10/km2) Weekday All 1.189 c (1.136, 1.243) <0.001 1.099 c (1.054, 1.146) <0.001 1.042 (1.000, 1.086) 0.051 1.051 a (1.008, 1.095) 0.019 1.063 b (1.019, 1.107) 0.004 1.042 (1.000, 1.086) 0.051
  Weekend All No interaction by Time of the Day 1.059 c (1.032, 1.086) <0.001
Street-network distance to nearest transport stop (1 km) All All No interaction by Time of the Day 1.000 (0.979, 1.022) 0.979
No. parks contained or intersected by bf – 1 km bf All All 1.033 c (1.020, 1.047) <0.001 1.030 c (1.019, 1.041) <0.001 1.021 c (1.010, 1.032) <0.001 1.024 c (1.013, 1.036) <0.001 1.030 c (1.018, 1.041) <0.001 1.001 (0.991, 1.012) 0.787
No. parks contained or intersected by bf – 0.5 km bf All All 1.098 c (1.061, 1.137) <0.001 1.079 c (1.048, 1.110) <0.001 1.041 b (1.012, 1.071) 0.006 1.043 b (1.014, 1.074) 0.004 1.057 c (1.027, 1.088) <0.001 0.993 (0.965, 1.022) 0.641
  1. Notes: bf = buffer eb = antilogarithm of regression coefficient; 95% CI = 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were adjusted for respondents’ age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, administrative-unit socio-economic status, study city, accelerometer wear time, time of the day, day of the week, and employment status by time of the day by time of the week interaction. eb is to be interpreted as the proportional increase in physical activity associated with a 1-unit increase in the predictor. a p < .05; b p < .01; c p < .001. Significant effects in bold