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Table 2 Results from meta-regression analysis of 50 short term outcome reports of PA and diet interventions

From: Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses

  Simple meta-regressiona Multiple meta-regressionb
Study characteristics b 95% CI P value Adj. R2 % b 95% CI P value
BCT 1.1 Goal setting behaviourc 0.480 (0.257, 0.705) <0.001 49.2 0.440 (0.225, 0.655) <0.001
BCT 2.2 Feedback on behaviourc 0.219 (−0.040, 0.479) 0.096 4.4    
BCT 2.3 Self-monitoring of behaviourc 0.398 (0.164, 0.632) 0.001 35.3    
BCT 2.7 Feedback on outcome of behaviourc 0.243 (−0.040, 0.527) 0.091 12.0    
BCT 6.1 Demonstration of the behaviourc 0.244 (−0.035, 0.523) 0.085 11.9    
BCT 9.2 Pros and consc −0.252 (−0.542, 0.038) 0.087 4.8    
High and unclear risk of reporting biasd 0.670 (0.100, 1.240) 0.022 18.5 0.530 (0.257, 1.034) 0.040
Number of BCTs unique in intervention groupe 0.033 (0.008, 0.059) 0.012 23.8    
Source of deliveryf
  No health professionals/unclear 0.000 reference      
  Other health professionals −0.201 (−0.550, 0.148) 0.252     
  Health professionals trained in behaviour change −0.283 (−0.607, 0.040) 0.085 6.5    
Adj. R2 %      58.8   
  1. Abbreviations and symbols: BCT behaviour change technique, PA physical activity, b estimated meta-regression coefficient, CI confidence interval Adj. R 2 adjusted proportion of between study variance explained by predictors
  2. aSimple linear meta-regression of pooled estimates of 30 physical activity and 20 diet intervention’s outcome reports. Only predictors with significant or borderline significant effects are reported; bMultiple linear meta-regression: results after stepwise backwards elimination from model with all significant predictors included. Only effects with p < 0.05 are retained in the model. cThe difference of BCTs between intervention and control group contains this BCT, compared to studies not having this difference. dHigh and unclear risk of reporting bias versus low risk; eThe number of unique BCTs in the intervention group as compared with the control group; fSource of delivery: competence of the counsellor