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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression models of the association between cultural participation, educational level and income on superfoods consumption

From: Does social distinction contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in diet: the case of ‘superfoods’ consumption

   Spelt products (N = 2759) Quinoa (N = 2737) Goji berries, chia seeds or wheatgrass (N = 2746)
   Crude modela Adjusted modelb Crude modela Adjusted modelb Crude modela Adjusted modelb
Variables Categories OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Cultural participation (quintiles) 1 lowest 1   1   1   1   1   1  
2 1.54 (1.16, 2.05) 1.39 (1.04, 1.87) 1.64 (1.06, 2.55) 1.40 (.89, 2.22) 1.53 (1.03, 2.29) 1.49 (.98, 2.25)
3 1.99 (1.48, 2.67) 1.72 (1.25, 2.35) 2.68 (1.72, 4.16) 2.08 (1.29, 3.35) 1.59 (1.07, 2.36) 1.55 (1.01, 2.36)
4 3.06 (2.26, 4.15) 2.54 (1.83, 3.52) 4.09 (2.64, 6.34) 2.94 (1.83, 4.72) 2.04 (1.37, 3.04) 1.98 (1.28, 3.05)
5 highest 3.72 (2.72, 5.08) 2.97 (2.10, 4.18) 5.37 (3.41, 8.47) 3.50 (2.12, 5.79) 2.83 (1.89, 4.22) 2.69 (1.73, 4.17)
Educational level Primary 1   1   1   1   1   1  
Lower secondary 2.15 (1.23, 3.76) 1.78 (1.00, 3.16) 1.13 (.46, 2.81) .91 (.36, 2.33) 1.19 (.56, 2.53) 1.10 (.51, 2.40)
Upper secondary 2.58 (1.46, 4.54) 1.87 (1.04, 3.37) 2.12 (.88, 5.11) 1.45 (.58, 3.63) 1.79 (.85, 3.76) 1.50 (.69, 3.27)
Tertiary 4.36 (2.49, 7.63) 2.55 (1.41, 4.62) 4.70 (1.97, 11.25) 2.37 (.93, 6.02) 2.08 (1.00, 4.32) 1.50 (.68, 3.32)
Household equivalent income <€1000 1   1   1   1   1   1  
€1000–€1500 1.20 (.85, 1.69) 1.02 (.71, 1.45) .84 (.53, 1.33) .71 (.44, 1.15) .82 (.51, 1.31) .73 (.44, 1.20)
€1500–€2000 1.34 (.93, 1.93) .97 (.67, 1.41) 1.15 (.72, 1.84) .81 (.50, 1.31) .87 (.56, 1.34) .69 (.44, 1.09)
€2000–€2500 1.64 (1.16, 2.31) .97 (.66, 1.42) 1.58 (1.01, 2.46) .87 (.55, 1.40) .94 (.61, 1.45) .68 (.42, 1.07)
>€2500 1.93 (1.28, 2.91) 1.01 (.65, 1.58) 2.48 (1.53, 4.01) 1.18 (.71, 1.95) 1.07 (.65, 1.77) .71 (.41, 1.22)
  1. aAll models were adjusted for confounders: sex, age, living together with a partner, country of birth, children living at home and employment status and fruit and vegetable consumption
  2. bAll models included cultural participation, educational level, household equivalent income, sex, age, living together with a partner, country of birth, children living at home, employment status and fruit and vegetable consumption