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Table 1 Systematic review of parental predictors on child healthy and unhealthy food consumption by age

From: The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Healthy Food Unhealthy Food
Predictors Pos. Neg. N.S. Pos. Neg. N.S.
  Pre-operational stage (Age 2 to 6)
 Restrictive Guidance 35% (6) 12% (2) 53% (9) 33% (7) 29% (6) 38% (8)
 Active Guidance 0% 0% 100% (2) - - -
 Availability 78% (7) 0% 22% (2) 100% (7) 0% 0%
 Accessibility 67% (2) 0% 33% (1) - - -
 Modeling 100% (14) 0% 0% 67% (2) 0% 33% (1)
 Pressure to eat 14% (2) 36% (5) 50% (7) 55% (6) 0% 45% (5)
 Rewarding food consumption 50% (3) 0% 50% (3) - - -
 Reward with verbal praise 80% (4) 0% 20% (1) 0% 0% 100% (2)
 Food as reward 0% 25% (2) 75% (6) 71% (5) 0% 29% (2)
  Concrete operational stage (Age 7 to 11)
 Restrictive Guidance 40% (4) 10% (1) 50% (5) 9% (1) 45% (5) 45% (5)
 Active Guidance 50% (1) 0% 50% (1) 0% 50% (1) 50% (1)
 Availability 92% (12) 0% 8% (1) 88% (7) 0% 13% (1)
 Accessibility 67% (2) 0% 33% (1) - - -
 Modeling 87% (13) 0% 13% (2) 78% (7) 0% 22% (2)
 Pressure to eat 0% 14% (1) 86% (6) 14% (1) 0% 86% (6)
 Rewarding food consumption 0% 0% 100% (3) 0% 0% 100% (3)
 Reward with verbal praise 0% 0% 100% (2) 0% 0% 100% (2)
 Food as reward 0% 50% (1) 50% (1) 50% (1) 0% 50% (1)
  Formal operational stage (Age 12 to 18)
 Restrictive Guidance 0% 0% 100% (3) 0% 83% (5) 17% (1)
 Active Guidance - - - - - -
 Availability 67% (2) 0% 33% (1) 60% (3) 20% (1) 20% (1)
 Accessibility - - - - - -
 Modeling 50% (1) 0% 50% (1) 100% (4) 0% 0%
 Pressure to eat - - - - - -
 Rewarding food consumption - - - - - -
 Reward with verbal praise - - - - - -
 Food as reward - - - - - -
  1. Values in brackets reflect the number of studies that found either a positive, negative, or non-significant effect