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Table 2 Meta-analysis of parental predictors of child healthy food consumption (32 unique studies included)

From: The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Predictors K N Effect Size 95% CI Q
Low High
Restrictive Guidance 13 9628 .05 −.01 .11 70.984***
Active Guidance 2 1142 .15*** .09 .21 0
Availability 15 23825 .24*** .17 .31 298.711***
Accessibility 3 10704 .10 −.04 .24 48.842***
Modeling 18 20104 .32*** .25 .39 291.395***
Pressure to eat 11 10808 −.04* −.08 .00 27.025**
Rewarding food consumption 4 4124 .03 −.02 .07 6.265
Reward with verbal praise 4 3381 .15* .00 .30 54.611***
Food as reward 3 1509 −.07* −.13 −.01 2.245
  1. Effect size calculations were based on random effects model
  2. K number of studies, N total sample size for all studies, Effect Size Pearson’s r, CI confidence interval, Q heterogeneity in effect sizes between studies
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, *** p < .001